Antibodies reactive with desmogleins 1 and 3 are considered to be highly specific serological markers for Selleck Nutlin 3a diagnosis. In the individual patient, antibody levels correlate with disease activity, showing a remarkable increase
during exacerbations and a drop during remissions . An important clue to the pathogenicity of desmoglein 3 antibodies was provided by the study of Anhalt et al. , wherein the passive transfer of IgG from patients with PV to newborn mice resulted in the development of suprabasilar acantholysis and intercellular deposition of IgG and C3, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. In more recent studies, even monovalent Fab immunoglobulin fragments were found to be pathogenic in GSK2126458 these mice [34,35]. Another study using the same experimental model showed that the blister formation was abolished when anti-desmoglein 3 IgG from the sera of patients was immunoadsorbed with recombinant desmoglein 3 . It is important to emphasize that in PV it is the antibodies that cause the tissue injury, in the absence of any inflammatory mediators [1,36,37].
The exact pathogenetic mechanism underlying the blister formation is still not understood completely. A direct inhibitory effect of the antibodies on the cell-to-cell adhesion function of the desmogleins was supported by a remarkable experiment by Koch et al. , wherein the genetic deletion of desmoglein 3 in mice led to the development of suprabasilar blisters in the oral mucosa and skin, very similar to the phenotype of patients with PV. In another study, anti-desmoglein-3 antibodies appeared to interfere directly with desmoglein function within the desmosome, causing split desmosomes, without keratin retraction, in areas of acantholysis . The anti-desmoglein antibodies might deplete the desmosomes of desmoglein directly or, alternatively, deplete the cell surface of desmoglein before it becomes incorporated into the desmosome, thereby decreasing the precursor pool [40–43].
In either case, it may be concluded that PV antibodies target desmoglein 3 for endocytosis and see more lysosomal degradation: adhesion on the cell surface is necessary to prevent the endocytosis of organizing desmosomes . Various studies have suggested a role for signalling pathways, associated with either acantholysis or causal. For example, adding PV-IgG to keratinocytes caused phosphorylation of desmoglein 1, leading to its dissociation from plakoglobin , a part of some signalling pathways. Plakoglobin was found to be a necessary ingredient for PV-IgG to cause retraction of keratin filaments in culture, serving possibly as a marker of early acantholysis . A study of PV-IgG-treatment-induced phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 in cells implicated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway by showing that inhibiting their pathway prevented cytoskeletal reorganization, associated presumably with loss of cell adhesion .