After analysing 68,974 non-redundant (of 3,60,906 available) ESTs of A. annua, 4,342 SSR markers were developed. On an average, one SSR was found per 8.9 kb of EST sequence with dinucleotide motifs in highest frequency (52.2%), followed by tri (42.4%), tetra (3.6%), hexa (1.2%) and pentanucleotide (0.6%) repeat types. A set of 16 primer pairs were designed by considering only the SSR-containing ESTs from the artetnisinin biosynthetic pathway. NVP-AUY922 molecular weight In total, 38 alleles were identified from 13 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 1-7 alleles per locus and displayed moderate genetic diversity
with an average of 0.24. It was found that the genetic diversity among individual from Nubra valley was narrower than that of Leh valley, suggesting the importance
and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for Artemisia germplasm conservation and breeding programmes.” “In vivo, cells encounter different physical and chemical signals in the extracellular BTSA1 matrix (ECM) which regulate their behavior. Examples of these signals are micro-and nanometer-sized features, the rigidity, and the chemical composition of the ECM. The study of cell responses to such cues is important to understand complex cell functions, some diseases, and is basis for the development of new biomaterials for applications in medical implants or regenerative medicine. Therefore, the development of new methods for surface modifications with controlled physical and chemical features is crucial. In this work, we report a new combination of micelle nanolithography (BCML) and soft micro-lithography, for the production of polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogels, with a micro-grooved surface and decoration with hexagonally precisely arranged gold nanoparticles (AU-NPs). selleck chemicals The Au-NPs are used for binding adhesive ligands in a well-defined
density. First tests were performed by culturing human fibroblasts on the gels. Adhesion and alignment of the cells along the parallel grooves of the surface were investigated. The substrates could provide a new platform for studying cell contact guidance by micro-structures, and may enable a more precise control of cell behavior by nanometrically controlled surface functionalization.” “BACKGROUND: Spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation is gaining increasing importance during intensive care but is depressed by narcotics, such as opioids. Serotonin 1A-receptor (5-HT(1A)-R) agonists have been shown to antagonize opioid-induced ventilatory depression, but both enhancement and attenuation of nociceptive reflexes have been found with different experimental models. To clarify contradictory findings, we simultaneously determined dose-response functions of the standard 5-HT(1A)-R-agonist 8-OH-DPAT and two different opioids for spontaneous ventilation and nociception.
MethodsWe assessed the distribution of HTTCAG repeat alleles in a cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder. HTTCAG allele sizes from 2,229 Caucasian individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were compared to allele sizes in 1,828 control individuals from multiple cohorts. ResultsWe found that HTTCAG repeat alleles bigger than 35units were observed in only one of 4,458 chromosomes from individuals with bipolar disorder, compared to three of 3,656 chromosomes from control subjects. ConclusionsThese
findings do not support an association between bipolar disorder and Huntington’s disease.” “Lysine is the limiting amino acid in cereal grains, which represent a major source of human food and animal feed worldwide, and is considered the most important of the essential amino acids. In this study, beta-casein, alpha S2-casein, and lactotransferrin cDNA clone fragments encoding lysine-rich peptides were fused together to generate a lysine-rich Nutlin-3 concentration (LR) gene and the mammary gland-specific expression vector pBC1-LR-NEOr was constructed. Transgenic mice were generated by pronuclear microinjection of the linearized expression vectors harboring the LR transgene. The transgenic mice and their offspring were examined Emricasan using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, reverse transcriptase-PCR, in situ hybridization,
and Western blotting techniques. Our results showed that the LR gene was successfully integrated into the mouse genome and was transmitted stably. The specific LR gene expression was restricted to the mammary gland, active alveoli of the transgenic female mice during lactation. The lysine level of the two transgenic lines was significantly higher than that QNZ of non-transgenic controls (p < 0.05). In addition, the growth performance of transgenic pups was enhanced by directly feeding them the LR
protein-enriched transgenic milk. Our results demonstrated that lysine-rich gene was successfully constructed and expressed in mammary gland of transgenic mice. This study will provide a better understanding of how mammary gland expression systems that increase the lysine content of milk can be applied to other mammals, such as cows.” “The international consensus on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which a reliable identification of early disease is mandatory. Conventional radiography of the joints is considered the standard method for detecting and quantifying joint damage in RA. However, radiographs only show late disease manifestations as joint space narrowing and bone erosions, whereas it cannot detect synovitis and bone marrow oedema, i.e., inflammation in the synovium or the bone, which may be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) months to years before erosions develop. Furthermore, MRI allows earlier visualization of bone erosions than radiography.
Overall, healthcare costs in the severely BMS-777607 obese population were more than double those incurred by the general population.” “A new righteye flounder, Poecilopsetta multiradiata, is described from eight specimens (two males and six females) collected from deep waters (336-408 m) around New Zealand and New Caledonia (South-West Pacific). This
new species is distinguished from its 14 congeners by the following combination of characters: high numbers of dorsal (70-73) and anal (58-62) fin rays, ca. 85-99 lateral-line scales, 31-32 caudal vertebrae, and a relatively shallow body depth of 36.9-41.9% SL.” “Purpose\n\nMeasurement experts use four criteria to examine Lazertinib smiles the fairness of tests: (1) equitable treatment for examinees, (2) equal outcomes for subgroups, (3) absence of bias, and (4) equal opportunity to learn. These criteria apply to portfolios just as they do to other assessments. This report examines the fairness of portfolio-based promotion decisions for medical students
at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine.\n\nMethod\n\nParticipants were 182 first-year medical students (97 men, 85 women) from six class cohorts (2004-2009). Chi-square statistics with Yates continuity correction were used to compare overall promotion decisions to students’ gender, self-reports of language fluency, and MCAT Writing Sample score. The Cramer V statistic served as an effect size learn more index. Post hoc power analyses identified the minimum sample size to obtain acceptable power.\n\nResults\n\nApproximately 85% of students were promoted to Year 2 of the program. Gender, U. S. citizenship, language fluency, and MCAT Writing Sample score were not significantly related to overall promotion decisions. Effect sizes were small (<= 0.15) for all contingency tables, suggesting weak associations between overall promotion decisions and students’ group characteristics.\n\nConclusions\n\nExamining fairness, although challenging, is essential to maintain
professional standards and avoid potential liability. Preliminary evidence in this study suggests that students’ background characteristics and verbal abilities were not strongly related to portfolio-based promotion decisions. Schools should monitor processes that may affect fairness. This study reports on just one aspect of fairness. More research is needed to evaluate other dimensions of fairness.” “The alignment of sequencing reads against a protein reference database is a major computational bottleneck in metagenomics and data-intensive evolutionary projects. Although recent tools offer improved performance over the gold standard BLASTX, they exhibit only a modest speedup or low sensitivity.
HR-/HER2- tumors had a worse outcome compared to other tumor subtypes but no significant difference was observed among HR-/HER2- tumors that achieved
a pCR.” “For understanding the phylogenetic TH-302 position of Micropercops swinhonis within the family Odontobutidae, the complete nucleotide sequence of M. swinhonis mitochondrial genome was firstly determined. The genome is 16,493 bp in length, and consists of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes) and 2 main noncoding regions (the control region and the origin of the light strand replication). The gene composition and order of which were similar to most other vertebrates. Within the control region, typical conserved domains, such as the termination-associated sequence, central and conserved sequence blocks domains were identified.” “The Extracellular 1 (EC1) domain of E-cadherin
has been shown to be important for cadherin-cadherin homophilic interactions. Cadherins are responsible for calcium-mediated cell-cell adhesion located at the adherens junction of the biological barriers (i.e., intestinal mucosa and the blood-brain barrier (BBB)). Cadherin peptides can modulate cadherin interactions to improve drug delivery GSK3235025 through the BBB. However, the mechanism of modulating the E-cadherin interactions by cadherin peptides has not been fully elucidated. To provide a basis for subsequent examination of the structure and peptide-binding properties of the EC1 domain of human E-cadherin using solution NMR spectroscopy, the Androgen Receptor Antagonist concentration H-1, C-13 and N-15 backbone resonance of the uniformly labeled-EC1 were assigned
and the secondary structure was determined based on the chemical shift values. These resonance assignments are essential for assessing protein-ligand interactions and are reported here.” “We investigated the effects of tivozanib, an oral vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in mice. C57BL/6 mice were treated with tivozanib (1 mg/kg/day) or vehicle at the onset (day 0) of the study and experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation the following day. In the other groups, tivozanib or vehicle was started 7 days after the laser photocoagulation to determine the effects of the drug on established CNV. To evaluate changes in the CNV lesions, choroidal flat mounts, fluorescein angiography, immunofluorescence staining with isolectin B4, and histological examinations were performed 14 days after CNV induction. Expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in choroidal tissues was measured by western blot analysis to demonstrate the inhibitory effect of tivozanib on intracellular signaling pathways involved in CNV development. Compared to vehicle-treatment, tivozanib suppressed the development of CNV lesions and led to a significant regression of established CNV, reducing the affected areas by 80.7% and 67.7%, respectively.
However, the influence of brain environment altered by ageing and deposits of amyloid-beta on proliferation of endogenous and transplanted NPs and their maturation into neurons is not understood. We studied the effect of ageing and development of amyloidosis-beta on proliferation of NPs (1) in the granular layer buy MRT67307 of dentate gyrus in the hippocampi of APP-transgenic mice (Tg9291) before and after development
of amyloidosis-beta, that is, in mice aged 2-4 months and 9-12 months, respectively, and in age-matched controls; and (2) in culture of NPs isolated from brains of control and Tg9291 mice, aged 3 and 9 months. We found that the number of proliferating NPs was reduced in 9-12-months-old mice, in both control and Tg9291, as compared to 2-4-months-old mice. However, the 9-12-months-old Tg9291 mice with amyloid-beta deposits had significantly more proliferating NPs than the age-matched controls. NPs proliferation
in culture did not depend on the age, presence of APP-transgene, and amyloidosis-beta in donors. The results indicate that the local brain environment influences proliferation of NPs, and development of amyloidosis-beta in the neurogenic regions attenuates the age-associated reduction of proliferation of NPs. Identification of the responsible mechanisms may be important for development of a successful Selleckchem LY2090314 therapy of neurodegeneration caused by amyloidosis-beta.” “Background: There have been no studies in which fasting serum ionic fluoride (SIF) concentrations in a general population were investigated despite the fact that SIF has various activities in humans.\n\nMethods: A total of MK-2206 purchase 332 healthy subjects (167 men and 165 women aged 40 to 69 years) were selected from residents of 2 towns in Iwate Prefecture, Japan using sex-specific and age-specific stratified random sampling methods. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected from all subjects. Serum levels of creatinine, bone alkaline phosphatase and urinary deoxypyridinoline levels were determined in one laboratory. SIF concentrations were measured using highly sensitive methods. Estimated
glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using serum creatinine level, age and sex.\n\nResults: Mean SIF concentrations were 0.495 mu mol/l in men and 0.457 mu mol/l in women. SIF concentrations were independently related to eGFR in both sexes and to menopause status in women. SIF concentrations in women were significantly higher in the post-menopausal group than in the pre-menopausal group.\n\nConclusion: SIF concentrations in middle-aged healthy subjects were increased with an age-related degeneration in renal function. SIF concentrations in post-menopausal women arise from the increased fluoride release from bone after menopause. Age is not related to SIF concentrations. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.” “The electron transport properties of the cubic quantum dot, (PbS)(32), are investigated.
selected second-trimester amniotic fluid samples from a Danish pregnancy-screening biobank covering 1980 through 1996. We used only samples from male offspring pregnancies. We assayed the environmental pollutants by liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and analyzed data using generalized linear regression models.\n\nRESULTS: We detected the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP) at a median concentration of 0.27 ng/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 0.20-0.37 check details ng/mL], the diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) metabolite mono(4-methyl-7-carboxyheptyl) phthalate (7cx-MMeHP) at 0.07 ng/mL (IQR: 0.05-0.11 ng/mL), and PFOS at 1.1 ng/mL (IQR: 0.66-1.60 ng/mL). An increase of 1 calendar year was associated with 3.5% lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.8%, -2.1%] 5cx-MEPP levels and with 7.1% higher (95% CI: 5.3%, 9.0%) 7cx-MMeHP levels. For each later gestational GSK923295 mw week
of amniocentesis, 5cx-MEPP was 9.9% higher (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.2%), 7cx-MMeHP was 8.6% higher (95: CI: 2.7%, 14.9%), and PFOS was 9.4% higher (95: CI: 3.3%, 15.9%). We observed no associations with maternal age or parity.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Measured metabolite levels appeared to parallel decreasing DEHP exposure and increasing DiNP exposure during the study period. The environmental pollutant levels were positively associated with later gestational age at amniocentesis during pregnancy weeks 12-22.” “Purpose: Retrospective evaluation of a series of patients presenting with genitourinary foreign objects. Patients and Methods: From 1997 to 2007, 11 men and 2 women were treated for a variety of foreign objects in the genitourinary tract.
Medical records were reviewed for presentation, diagnosis, mental status, drug dependency, treatment, and follow-up. Results: 13 patients were seen for removal of the foreign objects or for treatment of the sequela. These objects were intentionally self-inflicted, accidentally introduced or iatrogenic in nature. Intentional objects included: safety pins, screwdriver, marbles, pen cap, pencils, straw, cocaine, stiff metal wire and part of a pizza mixer. Accidental objects included: magnets, female catheter, urinary incontinence devices this website and part of a Foley catheter. The iatrogenic object was a reservoir from an inflatable penile implant. Smaller noninjurious objects were retrieved cystoscopically or at the bedside; larger objects or objects associated with trauma to the urethra needed open and reconstructive operations. Conclusions: Generally thought to be self-inflicted for personal gratification, the source of genitourinary objects can also be accidental or iatrogenic. The most traumatic injuries are purposely self-inflicted and found in patients who remove the objects themselves.
“ “Study design: Retrospective study. Objective: To determine the risk profile and complications associated with anterior vertebral body breach by Kirschner (K)-wire during percutaneous pedicle screw insertion. Summary of Background Data: Percutaneous techniques and indications are rapidly expanding with numerous studies now supporting the use of percutaneous pedicle screw stabilization as an adjunct for multiple pathologies such as degenerative, tumor, and trauma. With regards to complication rates, little has been documented. Materials and Methods: A total of 525 consecutive percutaneous pedicle screws were retrospectively reviewed and the rate of anterior
vertebral body breach was recorded, including any potential adverse clinical outcomes. Results: Of 525 percutaneous pedicle screw insertions, there were 7 anterior breaches recorded. We rated the breaches as a minor breach buy 3-deazaneplanocin A ( smaller than 5 mm; n = 3), moderate breach (5-25 mm; n = 2), and major breach ( bigger than 25 mm; n = 2). Two patients
had a postoperative ileus with a retroperitoneal hematoma on postoperative computed tomography scan. No patient required reoperation or blood transfusion. Conclusions: The indications for minimally invasive spinal fusion have expanded to include conditions such as degenerative, trauma, deformity, infection, and neoplasia. Although the rate of anterior K-wire breach is low, the technique requires the acquisition of a new set of GDC-0994 in vivo skills including the safe passage of a K-wire, and knowledge of potential complications that may ensue.” “OBJECTIVE: To define clinical and audiological findings in patients with temporal bone posterior wall defects (TBPWD) and to investigate possible relationships between these findings and the characteristics of the defect. MATERIALS and METHODS: The computed tomography (CT) views of 1198 patients with vestibulocochlear symptoms between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated, and TBPWD and associated anomalies were investigated. Patients who had TBPWD were called back, and clinical and audiological examinations this website (tympanometry, pure tone audiometry, acoustic
reflexes, and otoacoustic emission) were performed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight (2.34%) patients had TBPWD. Twenty-three of them were eligible for the study. Size of the defect was significantly correlated with the presence of tinnitus and/or vertigo (p smaller than 0.005). The cut-off values for the largest size of TBPWD were 1.65 mm [sensitivity: 0.67 and specificity: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97); p= 0.04] in case of the presence of tinnitus and 1.85 for vertigo (sensitivity: 0.78 and specificity: 0.86 (95% CI: 0.67-0.99); p= 0.006). In pure tone audiometry tests, mixed-type hearing loss was present in four (17%) patients, sensorineural hearing loss was present in three (13%) patients, and conductive-type hearing loss was present only in one (4%) patient.
Consistent with a role for AP-3 in the biogenesis of GABAergic SLMV in beta-cells, INS-1 cell VGAT content decreases upon inhibition of AP-3 delta-subunit expression. Our findings suggest that beta-cells and neurons share molecules and mechanisms important for mediating the neuron-specific membrane
trafficking pathways that underlie synaptic vesicle formation.” “PURPOSE. To determine the effects of topical dorzolamide (a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor) on choroidal and ciliary blood flow and the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow.\n\nMETHODS. The experiments were performed in four groups of pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits treated with topical dorzolamide (2%, 50 mu L). In all groups, intraocular pressure (IOP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the eye level were measured continuously by direct cannulation. In group 1, aqueous flow was measured GW4869 cell line by fluorophotometry before Fosbretabulin chemical structure and after dorzolamide treatment. In group 2, aqueous flow was measured after dorzolamide at normal MAP and while MAP was held constant at 80, 55, or 40 mm Hg with occluders on the aorta and vena cava. In group 3, the same MAP levels were used, and ciliary blood flow was measured transsclerally by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). In group 4, choroidal
blood flow was measured by LDF with the probe tip positioned in the vitreous over the posterior pole during ramp increases and decreases in MAP before and after dorzolamide.\n\nRESULTS. Dorzolamide lowered IOP by 19% (P < 0.01) and aqueous flow by 17% ( P < 0.01), and increased ciliary blood flow by 18% (
P < 0.01), which was associated with a significant reduction in ciliary vasculature resistance (-7%, P < 0.01). Dorzolamide shifted the relationship between ciliary blood flow and aqueous flow downward relative to the previously determined control relationship in the rabbit. Dorzolamide did not alter choroidal blood flow, choroidal vascular resistance, or the choroidal pressure flow relationship.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Acute topical dorzolamide is a ciliary vasodilator and has a direct inhibitory effect on aqueous production, but it does not have a detectable effect FDA approved drug high throughput screening on choroidal hemodynamics at the posterior pole in the rabbit. (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2301-2307) DOI:10.1167/iovs.08-2468″ “The pandemic of 1918 was caused by an H1N1 influenza A virus, which is a negative strand RNA virus; however, little is known about the nature of its direct ancestral strains. Here we applied a broad genetic and phylogenetic analysis of a wide range of influenza virus genes, in particular the PB1 gene, to gain information about the phylogenetic relatedness of the 1918 H1N1 virus. We compared the RNA genome of the 1918 strain to many other influenza strains of different origin by several means, including relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), effective number of codons (ENC), and phylogenetic relationship.
\n\nResults ImmunoCAP ISAC detected the presence of sIgE in 90% of poly-sensitized athletes in 96% with symptoms and in 75% without symptoms and in 100% of allergic
controls. The pattern of positivity towards the 103 components tested differed from subject to subject, even in those with the same sensitization to allergen extract SPT or sIgE. Based on the ISAC results, poly-sensitized athletes were classified into the following prototypical patterns, differently represented in the clinical phenotypes studied (P = 0.03): (1) One single predominant specific allergen positivity; (2) sIgE to two or more non-cross-reacting allergens; (3) sIgE to cross-reacting allergens; and (4) sIgE to components potentially responsible for severe allergic reactions.\n\nConclusions The ImmunoCAP ISAC represents a useful additional this website tool for diagnosis
THZ1 nmr and management of poly-sensitized athletes.” “Single-stage nitritation-anammox combines the growth of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in one reactor. The necessary compromise of their milieu conditions often leads to the growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). For this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for nitritation-anammox was operated for 180 days with sewage sludge reject water (removal capacity, 0.4 kg N m(-3) day(-1)). The growth of NOB was favored by enhanced oxygen supply rather than extended aerobic phases. Suspended-type biomass from this SBR was taken regularly and sieved into three size fractions (all of them < 1,000 mu m). Batch experiments as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed to study the distribution and activity of AnAOB, AOB, and NOB within those size fractions.
Both the measured conversion rates and YH25448 supplier detected abundances decreased with increasing size fraction. The highest anammox conversion rates (15 g NH4 (+)-N per kilogram VSS per hour) and the highest abundances of Brocadia fulgida were found in the medium size fraction (100-315 mu m). The batch experiments proved to be accurate tools for the monitoring of multiple processes in the reactor. The results were representative for reactor performance during the 6 months of reactor operation.” “Background & aims: Multiple myeloma (MM) ranks among the most frequent blood cancers in adults. Optimal treatment consists of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is reduced before, during, and after therapy. Several HRQoL items are associated with nutritional health, e.g.
Management is often challenging because of the multifactorial pathogenesis and underestimation or misdiagnosis of acquired CBL0137 bleeding disorders, particularly acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In recent years, growing interest in thromboembolic risk has emerged after the introduction of novel and more effective antimyeloma agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide), which was associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly when associated with dexamethasone and multiagent chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients. The clinical impact of bleeding and thrombotic complications in patients with PCD, with emphasis
on MM, will be discussed in this review, reporting the current knowledge about pathophysiologic mechanisms and implications for management.” “The synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides is
too tedious to scale up for commercialization. However, structurally simplified Selleck GS-7977 glycomimetics are commercializable, if they can be synthesized much more easily than the oligosaccharides while having a comparable bioactivity. In this study, we propose a 2-oxabutane (OB) structure as an imitation of the internal monosaccharide units in oligosaccharides. Two trimannoside and three pentamannoside OB-glycomimics were synthesized in remarkably short steps. Among them, Man alpha 1-OB-2Man 10, a trimannoside mimic, showed eight-fold affinity toward concanavalin A (ConA) relative to methyl mannoside in latex agglutination lectin assay and equilibrium dialysis assay (EDA), while the other mimics
showed three-to four-fold affinities. EDA indicated that the bindings between each mimic molecule and a ConA subsite were all in one-to-one stoichiometry and thus these mimics were monovalent ligands, excluding multivalence effect for the high affinities. The strong affinity of 10 could be explained by the occupation of two mannose binding sites of a ConA subsite by its two mannose units. Mimic 10 proved to be even see more a better ligand for ConA than the natural disaccharide Man alpha 1,2Man, while been much more easy to synthesize, thereby illustrating the potential of the approach here presented.” “Distal gut bacteria play a pivotal role in the digestion of dietary polysaccharides by producing a large number of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that the host otherwise does not produce. We report here the design of a custom microarray that we used to spot non-redundant DNA probes for more than 6,500 genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lyases selected from 174 reference genomes from distal gut bacteria. The custom microarray was tested and validated by the hybridization of bacterial DNA extracted from the stool samples of lean, obese and anorexic individuals. Our results suggest that a microarray-based study can detect genes from low-abundance bacteria better than metagenomic-based studies.