Results: Unilateral transfemoral and hip disarticulation amputati

Results: Unilateral transfemoral and hip disarticulation amputations resulted in significantly

reduced walking speed (80% and 72% of normal, respectively) and increased VO(2) cost (151% and 161% of normal, respectively), while the heart rate was significantly increased in the hip disarticulation group (124% of normal). Compared with the controls, the children with a bilateral amputation walked significantly slower (87% of normal), with an elevated heart rate (119% of normal) but a similar energy cost. Children with a Syme amputation, transtibial amputation, or knee disarticulation walked with essentially the same speed and oxygen cost as did normal children in the same age group.

Conclusions: Children with an amputation through the knee or distal to the knee were able to maintain a normal walking speed without significantly increasing their energy cost. Only when the amputation is above selleck the knee do children walk SRT2104 research buy significantly

slower and with an increased energy cost.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.”
“This report represents a very rare case of a gastric adenocarcinoma that was coexistent with hepatoid adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to a huge ulcerofungating mass identified at the proximal body of the stomach. After a pathological diagnosis of the tumor as a poorly differentiated

adenocarcinoma was made, the patient underwent a total gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. Microscopically, the tumor consisted of three morphologically distinct components-tubular adenocarcinoma, hepatoid adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. The hepatoid adenocarcinoma component resembled a hepatocellular carcinoma and produced alpha-fetoprotein. The neuroendocrine carcinoma component was positive for learn more chromogranin and synaptophysin immunostains. This is an example of the diverse morphological and immunophenotypical differentiation of gastric carcinomas.”
“The vascular endothelium has been identified as an important component in diabetes-associated complications, which include many cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy. Additionally, insulin’s actions on the endothelium are now seen as a major factor in the metabolic effects of the hormone by increasing access to insulin sensitive tissues. Endothelial function is impaired in diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, which could reduce insulin access to the tissue, and thus reduce insulin sensitivity independently of direct effects at the muscle cell. As such, the endothelium is a valid target for treatment of both the impaired glucose metabolism in diabetes, as well as the vascular based complications of diabetes.

001, positive predictive value 84 6%, negative predictive value 9

001, positive predictive value 84.6%, negative predictive value 96.2%). In conclusion, a high titer of parvovirus

B19 DNA higher than 1 x 10(6) copies/5 mu l whole blood in KT recipients was related with SSA after 4 weeks post-transplant.”
“The purpose of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative loop-mediated isothermal amplication (LAMP) method for the rapid, sensitive, and convenient detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food. The LAMP method could amplify the hlyA gene of L. monocytogenes successfully at 63 degrees C with a loopamp real-time turbidimeter. The detection limits of the LAMP for hlyA gene were 6 colony forming units (CFU)/tube. A standard curve was generated for L. monocytogenes LAMP by plotting the graph based different log CFU values of L. monocytogenes GANT61 and time of positivity through

real-time monitoring of the amplication. Then, the LAMP method was employed to test 94 retail food samples effectively. Sensitivity in detection of L. monocytogenes by the LAMP was higher than that of PCR and none of the conventional method-positive samples was missed by the LAMP method.”
“The current-voltage characteristics of n-type GaN Schottky diodes have been measured in the extrinsic region (that is, the temperature range of 100-300 K). The effective density of states in the conduction band decreases with decreasing temperature and is close to the electron concentration at 100 K, leading to a reduction in the GW786034 chemical structure energy difference between the conduction band minimum and Fermi level and an increase in the probability of tunneling. Therefore, changes in the effective density of states in the conduction band and the probability of tunneling at low temperature are responsible for the decrease of the barrier height and Dihydrotestosterone increase in the ideality factor on the basis of the thermionic emission model. The mechanism of forward current flow has been clearly established in this study, leading to the thermionic emission (thermionic field emission) interpretation of the I-V characteristics at 300 K (100 K).”
“Mini-open donor

nephrectomy (MODN) potentially combines advantages of standard open (SODN) and laparoscopic techniques (LDN). This article is a comparison of these techniques. A literature search was performed for studies comparing MODN with SODN or LDN. Nine studies met our selection criteria. Of the 1038 patients, 433 (42%) underwent MODN, 389 (37%) SODN and 216 (21%) LDN. MODN versus SODN: Operative time (P = 0.17), warm ischemia time (P = 0.20) and blood loss (P = 0.30) were not significantly different. Hospital stay and time to return to work were shorter for MODN by 1.67 days (P < 0.001) and 5 weeks (P = 0.03). Analgesia requirement and overall complications were less in the MODN group (P < 0.001) and (P = 0.03). Ureteric complications (P = 0.21) and 1-year graft survival (P = 0.28) were not significantly different.

20)Ga(0 80)N (1 4 nm)-In(0 26)Ga(0 74)N (1 6 nm) for blue LEDs S

20)Ga(0.80)N (1.4 nm)-In(0.26)Ga(0.74)N (1.6 nm) for blue LEDs. Superiority of this novelty design is on the strength of its enhanced overlap of electron and hole wave functions, uniform distribution of holes, and suppressed electron leakage in the LED device. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3471804]“
“Acute renal failure due to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common complication in cardiovascular surgery. We determined the influence of tadalafil on renal injury in a renal I/R model in rats. For this purpose, 21 male Wistar albino rats were separated into 3 groups:

Selleckchem BAY 1895344 sham, placebo and tadalafil. A right nephrectomy was performed, and the left renal pedicles were occluded for 60 min and reperfused for 60 min in the placebo and tadalafil groups. A single dose of tadalafil (10 mg/kg) through an orogastric tube was administered

to the tadalafil group. Tubular atrophy with acute inflammation in renal histology, total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined in tissue homogenates. Compared to the tadalafil group, tubular atrophy and acute inflammation was significant in the placebo group. TAS levels were significantly higher in the tadalafil group compared to learn more the placebo (p = 0.01) and sham groups (p = 0.04). While TOS levels were significantly higher in the placebo group (p = 0.03), tadalafil did not significantly alter the TOS levels. The beneficial effects of tadalafil can be attributed to its protective effects on renal tubular cells and inhibition of leukocyte infiltration in renal tissue. We think

that tadalafil treatment has an important role in reducing renal injury resulting from renal I/R. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“This study was conducted in Tubah subdivision, Northwest region, Cameroon, aiming at identifying plants used to treat respiratory diseases. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview members of the population including traditional healers, herbalists, herb sellers, and other villagers. The plant parts used as well as the modes of preparation and administration were recorded. Fifty four plant species belonging to BKM120 molecular weight 51 genera and 33 families were collected and identified by their vernacular and scientific names. The Asteraceae was the most represented family (6 species) followed by the Malvaceae (4 species). The families Asclepiadaceae, Musaceae and Polygonaceae were represented by one species each. The plant part most frequently used to treat respiratory diseases in the study was reported as the leaf. Of the 54 plants studied, 36 have been documented as medicinal plants in Cameroon’s pharmacopoeia. However, only nine of these have been reported to be used in the treatment of respiratory diseases.”
“Warm laser shock peening (WLSP) is an innovative thermomechanical processing technique, which combines the advantages of laser shock peening (LSP) and dynamic aging (DA).

The performance of these active wound dressings in terms of a sus

The performance of these active wound dressings in terms of a sustained and suitable drug-release rate, adequate water uptake and water permeability, selleck screening library and antibacterial activities

were compared with those of a commercial wound dressing (Comfeel Plus). The results show that the dressings made from PCL and PLA/PCL blends showed better performance compared with the commercial wound dressing sample as far as these properties were concerned. The improved performance could be explained on the basis of the nanofibrous structure of the mats and the hydrophilicity of PCL and PLA. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“The Poisson-Nernst-Planck system of equations is used to simulate the charge dynamics due to ionic current and resulting time-dependent displacement of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) materials. Measured data show that currents through the polymer of IPMC cause potential gradients on the electrodes. Existing physics based models

of IPMC do not explicitly consider how this affects the charge formation near the electrodes and resulting actuation of IPMC. We have developed an explicit physics based model that couples the currents in check details the polymer to the electric current in the continuous electrodes of IPMC. The coupling is based on the Ramo-Shockley theorem. The circular dependency concept is used to explain how the dependency between the ionic current and the potential drop in the electrodes is calculated and how they affect each other. Simulations were carried out using the finite element method. Calculated potential gradients, electric

currents, and tip displacement of IPMC were validated against experimental data. We also show how the model is general in respect to the different types of currents in the polymer and how it can be used in more complicated cases such as 3D simulations. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3650903]“
“The aim of the survey was to estimate the prevalence rate of epilepsy, as well as seizure types, frequency, etiology, and comorbidity, by gender, age, and socioeconomic status G418 manufacturer among people with epilepsy in the Croatian county of Sibenik-Knin. The survey revealed that of 112,871 inhabitants, 1228 were identified as having active epilepsy. The crude prevalence rate for Sibenik-Knin County was 10.9 per 1000 inhabitants. Prevalence rates (per 1000) by age and gender were: 6.9 (ages 0-19); 10.6 (ages 20-59); 15.1 (ages 60+), 10.1 (females), and 11.7 (males). A significant number of subjects had different comorbid disorders. Although the literature suggests that Dalmatia is a region with a low prevalence of epilepsy, our results showed that Sibenik-Knin County has a higher prevalence of epilepsy than expected for European populations.

Patients with microscopy confirmed P falciparum parasitaemia wer

Patients with microscopy confirmed P. falciparum parasitaemia were definitely enrolled and reviewed weekly by the CHWs during buy Crenigacestat 42 days. Primary outcome measure was PCR corrected parasitological cure rate by day 42, as estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. This trial is registered with, number NCT00454961.


A total of 244 febrile children were enrolled between March-August 2007. Two patients were lost to follow up on day 14, and one patient withdrew consent on day 21. Some 141/241 (58.5%) patients had recurrent infection during follow-up, of whom 14 had recrudescence. The PCR corrected cure rate by day 42 was 93.0% (95% CI 88.3%-95.9%). The median lumefantrine concentration was statistically significantly lower in patients with recrudescence (97 ng/mL [IQR 0-234]; n = 10) compared with reinfections Ilomastat datasheet (205 ng/mL [114-390]; n = 92), or no parasite reappearance (217 [121-374] ng/mL; n = 70; p <= 0.046).

Conclusions: Provision of AL by CHWs for unsupervised

malaria treatment at home was highly effective, which provides evidence base for scaling-up implementation of HMM with AL in Tanzania.”
“Urethral bulking agents are a commonly employed modality utilized for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. These primarily collagen-based agents are placed in the proximal urethra to facilitate mucosal coaptation during increases of intra-abdominal stress. Several known complications of these agents exist, including urethral prolapse, retention, and urinary infection. Herein, we report two cases diagnosed as urethral diverticuli which were ultimately determined anatomic aberration secondary to prior bulking agent therapy. Recognition of this potential sequela of bulking agent placement is important for the female pelvic surgeon to recognize to avoid the morbidity of potential invasive interventions.”
“In a growing number of transplant centers worldwide, altruistic donors are accepted to anonymously donate a kidney to a stranger. An important hesitation to expand

these transplantation programs is the fear of evoking psychological AZD0530 chemical structure distress in the altruistic donor after donation. To what extent this fear is justified has not yet been systematically investigated. In this study, 24 altruistic donors were interviewed on average 2 years after donation. Lifetime mental health history, current psychological complaints, satisfaction with and impact of the donation on well-being, motives for donation, communication with recipient and donation experience were assessed. Altruistic donors report a considerable positive impact of donation on psychological well-being, whereas negative impact was limited. Satisfaction with donation was very high. Although a history of a psychiatric diagnosis was ascertained in almost half of the donors, psychological complaints before and after donation were comparable to national average norm scores.

02) in the test group was significantly lower than

in the

02) in the test group was significantly lower than

in the control group. The overall frequency of PONV in the test group was significantly less than that of the control group (7% vs 40%; P = 0.006). In addition, the mean (SD) infused volume of PCEA in the test group was significantly lower than that in the control group (392.3 [68.9] vs 351.2 [49.8] mL; P = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in pain intensity, usage of rescue antiemetics and rescue analgesics, and mild pruritus between groups. CUDC-907 clinical trial No patient reported moderate or severe sedation, respiratory depression, or hypoxemia. In addition, there were no severe adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: Midazolam added to fentanyl ropivacaine PCEA was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of PONV compared with fentanyl-ropivacaine alone, and a significant decrease in the amount of PCEA administered without a significant increase in adverse events in these patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2010;71:298-308) (C) 2010 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.”
“Study design: Secondary analysis of existing data.

Objective: Our objective was to examine the relationship between race-ethnicity and poverty status after spinal cord injury


Setting: A large specialty hospital in the southeastern United States.

Methods: Participants were 2043 adults with traumatic SCI in the US. Poverty status was measured using criteria from the US Census Bureau.

Results: Whereas only 14% of non-Hispanic White participants were below the poverty level, 41.3% of non-Hispanic Blacks were in poverty. Logistic regression with three different models identified several significant

Mizoribine cost predictors of poverty, including marital status, years of education, level of education, age and employment status. Non-Hispanic Blacks had 2.75 greater odds of living in poverty after controlling for other factors, including education and employment.

Conclusion: LB-100 order We may need to consider quality of education and employment to better understand the elevated risk of poverty among non-Hispanic Blacks in the US.”
“Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a rare disorder which may be associated with various clinical contexts and radiological patterns.

To evaluate prospective peculiarities of the manifestation of OP, which may improve the of characterization of the disorder.

Forty consecutive patients with a biopsy proven OP were investigated. Clinical symptoms, radiographic signs, and laboratory indices (complete blood cell counts, CRP level, BAL fluid examination) were examined. All patients underwent investigation for possible underlying pathology and associations.

62.5% of patients had mild-to-moderate respiratory symptoms, 17.5% had severe respiratory symptoms, while the remaining 20% were asymptomatic (an incidental finding on chest radiographs). Severity of the disease correlated with CRP level, but did not correlate with blood leukocytes.

15, 323 15, 373 15 and 423 15 K Lastly, a comparison of stabilit

15, 323.15, 373.15 and 423.15 K. Lastly, a comparison of stability data and different calorimetric curve PHA-739358 manufacturer profiles of several antibiotics belonging to

the cephalosporin and penicillin classes led to the conclusion that the presence of penicillanic and cephalosporanic rings in all the molecular structures considered does not seem to noticeably affect the overall decomposition mechanisms of the various antibiotics.”
“The D-glucose/D-xylose isomerase was purified from a thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans TH2, by precipitating with heat shock and using Q-Sepharose ion exchange column chromatography, and then characterized. The purified enzyme had a single band having molecular weight of 49 kDa on SDS-PAGE. In the presence of D-glucose as a substrate, the optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 80A degrees C and 7.5,

respectively. GSK461364 molecular weight The purified xylose isomerase of G. thermodenitrificans TH2 was extremely stable at pH 7.5 after 96 h incubation at 4A degrees C and 50A degrees C. When the thermal stability profile was analyzed, it was determined that the purified enzyme was extremely stable during incubation periods of 4 months and 4 days at 4A degrees C and 50A degrees C, respectively. The K (m) and V (max) values of the purified xylose isomerase from G. thermodenitrificans TH2 were calculated as 32 mM and 4.68 mu mol/min per mg of protein, respectively. Additionally, it was detected that some metal ions affected the enzyme activity at different ratios. The enzyme was active and stable at high temperatures and nearly neutral pHs which are desirable for the usage in the food and ethanol industry.”
“Aims: This study aims to assess the relationships between age, sex, drinking behaviour and self-reported alcohol-related

problem behaviour.

Design: Cross-sectional population Survey.

Setting and participants: Interviews were undertaken in 2004, with a representative sample of Australian residents aged 12 and over (N = 29,445).

Measurements: Alcohol use was measured using graduated frequency questions and, using these questions, 此网站 estimates of total annual intake and frequency of heavy drinking occasions were derived. Alcohol-related problems were measured using a 10-item scale, relating to behaviour in the 12 months prior to the Survey.

Findings: Alcohol-related problem behaviours clustered into two groups: hazardous behaviour and delinquent behaviour. Rates of problem behaviours and drinking followed similar patterns for males and females, with peaks in early adulthood and a subsequent decline with age. Males drank at higher levels than females and behaved more problematically. Once alcohol consumption and drinking pattern were controlled for, male and female rates of problem behaviours were not markedly different.

Conclusion: Guo and Ino introduced shortly after irradiation redu

Conclusion: Guo and Ino introduced shortly after irradiation reduce leukopenia and thrombocytopenia and offer promise as therapeutic agents for treatment of radiation injuries.”
“Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of intravesically applied amikacin for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) occurring in the first 3 months after kidney transplantation. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 200 consecutive renal transplant recipients were randomly divided into two equal groups. The bladders of the first group, the amikacin group, were filled with saline solution containing amikacin (1 g in adults and 30

mg/kg in pediatric patients) whereas the bladders of the patients of the second group, the control group, were filled PR-171 with saline solution. Patients were followed up for 3 months after transplantation with urine cultures to evaluate the prevalence of post-transplantation UTIs in both groups. Results: The overall incidence of UTIs was found to be significantly lower in the amikacin group (25 vs. 49%; p = 0.0007). In addition, male patients, patients with end-stage renal disease due to glomerulonephritis, patients receiving renal transplantation for the first time, or those from the amikacin group receiving a living-related graft

had a significantly lower incidence of UTIs than their counterparts in the control group (p<0.05). UTIs were most frequently caused find more by Escherichia coli (28.9%). Conclusions: Perioperative bladder irrigation with ISRIB amikacin solution significantly decreases the overall incidence of UTIs in the first 3 months after kidney transplantation. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The multiphonon-assisted photoluminescence (PL) of the

single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied by solving the Schroumldinger equation, showing a set of phonon sidebands, both the Stokes and anti-Stokes lines, which are induced by the longitudinal optical phonon and radial breathing mode phonon. All the calculated results are in a good agreement with the recent experimental PL spectra of the SWNTs [F. Plentz, H. B. Ribeiro, A. Jorio, M. S. Strano, and M. A. Pimenta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 247401 (2005)] and J. Lefebvre and P. Finnie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 167406 (2007)]. In addition, it is very interesting to find in the calculated PL several additional phonon sidebands with rather weak intensities, which are caused by the exciton’s coupling with two kinds of phonons, and expected to be observed in future experiments.”
“Purpose: To investigate the cytotoxic effect of high linear-energy transfer (LET) carbon irradiation on glioblastoma cells lines in combination with temozolomide (TMZ).

Non-solvent addition coacervation technique using hydroxypropylme

Non-solvent addition coacervation technique using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as the rate controlling polymer was employed to achieve FMC. Three formulations of FMC were prepared and optimized regarding encapsulation efficiency and dissolution kinetics. Among all formulations, FMC2 having 1: 3 ratio of cimetidine: HPMC exhibited the better in vitro performance regarding encapsulation efficiency and dissolution kinetics than that of FMC1 and FMC3. In conclusion, the FMC can be designed via non-solvent addition technique.”
“With our aging population, chronic diseases that compromise

skin integrity such as diabetes, peripheral vascular disease (venous hypertension, SYN-117 mouse arterial insufficiency) are becoming increasingly common. Skin breakdown with ulcer and chronic

wound formation is a frequent consequence of these diseases. Types of ulcers include pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers (arterial and venous hypertension), and neuropathic ulcers. Treatment of these ulcers involves recognizing the four stages of healing: coagulation, inflammation, proliferation, and maturation. Chronic wounds are frequently stalled in the inflammatory stage. Moving past the inflammation stage requires considering the bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the wound being find more treated. Bacterial overgrowth or infection needs to be treated with topical or systemic agents. In most cases, necrotic tissue needs to be debrided and moisture balance needs to be addressed by wetting dry tissue and drying wet tissue. Special dressings have been developed to accomplish these tasks. They include films, hydrocolloids, hydrogel dressings, foams, hydrofibers, composite and alginate dressings.”
“Osteoporosis in the aging male remains an important yet under-recognized and undertreated disease. Current US estimates indicate that over 14 million this website men have osteoporosis or low bone mass, and men suffer approximately 500,000 osteoporotic fractures each

year. Men experience fewer osteoporotic fractures than women but have higher mortality after fracture. Bisphosphonates are potent antiresorptive agents that inhibit osteoclast activity, suppress in vivo markers of bone turnover, increase bone mineral density, decrease fractures, and improve survival in men with osteoporosis. Intravenous zoledronic acid may be a preferable alternative to oral bisphosphonate therapy in patients with cognitive dysfunction, the inability to sit upright, or significant gastrointestinal pathology. Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is approved in the US as an annual 5 mg intravenous infusion to treat osteoporosis in men. The zoledronic acid ( Zometa) 4 mg intravenous dose has been studied in the prevention of bone loss associated with androgen deprivation therapy.

Methods: Hansen’s solubility parameter study was carried out in s

Methods: Hansen’s solubility parameter study was carried out in screening of a suitable carrier and solvent system. Subsequently, SLNs were prepared by solvent diffusion evaporation method and investigated for particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug release behaviour.

Results: Variations BIRB 796 in vitro in SLN composition resulted in particle sizes between 170 and 810 nm and ZPs between 8 and 14 mV. The maximum EE was found to be 26.3% with particle size of 188.8 nm. SLN can sustain the release of drug for up to 15 h and

it shows Higuchi matrix model as the best-fitted model. SLNs were stable without aggregation of particles under storage conditions.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide the framework for further study involving the SLN formulation for hydrophilic drug molecule.”
“Post-translational Givinostat modifications (PTMs) located on the activation peptide (AP) of recombinant FIX (rFIX, BeneFIX (R)) and plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX, Betafact (R)) have been investigated by mass spectrometry to review the structural differences between these two products. Three major structural differences were pointed out. rFIX contains a low amount of phosphorylated and sulphated AP (4% for rFIX vs. 70% for pdFIX); rFIX N-glycans are only sialylated in the a2-3 linkage, whereas pdFIX N-glycans contain both type

of a2-3 and a2-6 linkages, and rFIX does not contain any sialyl LewisX glycoantigens contrary to pdFIX. These variations might participate in the in vivo potential different behaviours of the two molecules.”
“Object. Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because CHIR-99021 of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis

revascularization in this population.

Methods. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution.

Results. During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries.