29 to 2 70)

29 to 2.70). Selleckchem ICG-001 Use of internal fixation ranged from 4.6% to 42.1% (nearly a ten-fold difference)

among hospital referral regions. The percentage of patients treated with internal fixation within a hospital referral region was positively correlated with the percentage of patients in that region who were treated by a hand surgeon (correlation coefficient, 0.34; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: The use of internal fixation for the treatment of a distal radial fracture differs widely among geographical regions and patient populations. Such variations highlight the need for improved comparative-effectiveness data to guide the treatment of this fracture.”
“SETTING: Singapore, which had a tuberculosis (TB) incidence rate of 41 per 100 000 resident population in 2011.

OBJECTIVE: To report the outcomes of Singapore citizens and permanent residents treated for TB from 2002 to 2011.

METHODS: A computerised treatment surveillance module (TSM) was launched in 2001 to track the progress and outcome www.selleckchem.com/products/MS-275.html of TB patients nationally. Physicians were required to submit an electronic or paper return for every patient at each

clinic visit. Treatment adherence, drugs prescribed, treatment delivery mode and final outcome, specified as ‘completed treatment’, ‘lost to follow-up’, ‘death’, ‘transferred out’, ‘permanent cessation of treatment’ and ‘still on treatment/no final outcome’, were captured. Quarterly cohort outcomes at 12-15 months after starting treatment were combined to generate annual treatment outcomes.

RESULTS: Treatment completion rates increased from 73.4% to 82.8%. The proportion of patients lost to follow-up decreased from 3.4% to 1.7%, while that of patients still on treatment or with no final outcome decreased from 10.5% to 4.4%. The death rate ranged between 10.2% and 11.7%; the majority were not attributed to TB.

CONCLUSION: TB treatment completion among Singapore citizens

and permanent residents has improved since 2002 as the likely result of the TSM and other initiatives introduced over the past decade.”
“The parasitic weed Orobanche foetida (Poiret) is an emergent agronomical problem on faba bean in Tunisia. The Tunisian breeding programs for faba bean resistance to O. see more foetida have produced several tolerant lines including the line XBJ90.03-16-1-1-1, which limits both parasite attachments to the host roots and growth of the attached parasites. The present study aims to provide a better understanding of the nutritional relationships between the parasite and this tolerant line in comparison with the susceptible Bachaar genotype. Phloem saps of faba bean were harvested using phloem exudation experiments. The major organic compounds potentially transferred from both faba bean genotypes to the parasite were identified as sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, citrate, malate, asparagine (ASN), aspartate (ASP), glutamine, glutamate, serine, alanine and GABA.

Bonding strength was fundamentally determined by the degree of fr

Bonding strength was fundamentally determined by the degree of fragmentation of the oxide films, through which the formation of IMCs can be initiated due to the direct contact of the metal surfaces to be bonded. The extent of fracture the oxide layer was strongly influenced

by the level of ultrasonic power, as at its high level alumina fragmentation becomes pervasive resulting in contiguous alloy interfaces and robust bonds. The IMCs formed at the interfaces were identified as Al4Al and AuAl2 with a thickness of 150-300 nm. The formation mechanism of such IMCs was explained by the effective heat of formation theory. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3514005]“
“Human SP110 plays an important role in resisting intracellular click here pathogens, and hence has become an important drug target for preventing intracellular pathogen diseases, such as tuberculosis, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, and intracellular cancers. Unfortunately, so far little is known about the interactions of SP110 with the other proteins in a cell, which is considered to be the key for revealing its action mechanism and mediated pathway. Using both the genetic and structural analyses as

well as the segment-docking approach, we have identified learn more two proteins: the human remodeling and spacing factor 1 (RSF1) and the activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein (ATF7IP). They are very likely interacting with human SP110 during the process of viral infections. Owing to the close relationship of RSF1 with the chromatin remodeling and ATF7IP with the chromatin formation, it is logical

to infer that human SP110 may be involved in the chromatin remodeling and formation as well. These findings may provide useful insights selleck kinase inhibitor into the development of new drugs for treating and preventing intracellular pathogen diseases.”
“A large scale heterostructure array of ZnO nanowires/silicon nanoporous pillar array (Si-NPA) was prepared by a self-catalytic thermal evaporation and vapor-phase transport method, and an ultrahigh field emission current density of 1.55 mA cm(-2) was obtained under an operating electric field of 4.0 V mu m(-1), with a low turn-on field of 1.65 V mu m(-1). The enhancement factor calculated according to the Fowler-Nordheim theory was similar to 3141. The excellent field emission performance was attributed to the unique structure of ZnO/Si-NPA, especially the formation of ZnO nanowires on regular Si pillar array. Our work indicated that ZnO/Si-NPA might be an ideal candidate cathode of potential applications in flat panel displays and high brightness electron sources. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516156]“
“Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum. seed oil was used to make a surface coating with antifungal, antibacterial and anti-termite properties. The paint exhibited inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans in a concentration dependent manner.

This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition of essent

This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition of essential oil of the roots of vetiver grown in the Hospital of Alternative Medicine in Goias, Brazil, to

evaluate potential antimicrobial and perform acute toxicity test. In the analysis of the essential oil khusimol (12, 86%) and palustrol (8,67%) were the major components. In evaluating the antimicrobial potential of essential oil of V. zizanioides it was noted a potent activity against Micrococcus roseus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 70 mu g/mL and against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC of 150 mu g/mL. The crude ethanolic extract showed antimicrobial activity greater than the fractions, Selleckchem Cl-amidine with MIC of 190 mu g/mL for M. roseus and Bacillus cereus. In assessing the acute oral toxicity it was found that the crude ethanolic extract showed no toxicity to rats at a dose of 2000 mg/kg.”
“The Svalbard Archipelago differs from other polar regions due to its specific environmental conditions and geographic R406 order location,

which mean that the area gathers pollution from long-range transport. Due to recent developments in analytical techniques, it is possible to determine the concentration of pollutants at the levels present there. The data obtained do not only constitute a source of information about the changes in the polar environment but also enable evaluation of the influence of particular pollutants on the global ecosystem. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Extensive necrotizing vasculitis (ENV) is a rare paraneoplastic phenomenon, and the majority of cases reported are associated with hematolymphoid neoplasms. Histologically, most cases of ENV represent leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV). Here we report the clinicopahological features of a 68-year-old man with ENV associated to a Epstein Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+DLBCL) of the elderly,

a newly recognized lymphoproliferative disorder, most likely THZ1 cell line representing a paraneoplastic manifestation. The patient was treated with standard chemotherapy regimen for malignant lymphoma. Due to the extensive involvement of the extremities by ENV, surgical debridement was not feasible and a novel therapy based on CHITOSAN apposits was initiated with overall good response and subsequent re-epithelization of the skin lesions. The patient died of sepsis secondary to a Pseudomona pneumonia 17 months after diagnosis.”
“Voiding dysfunctions are common neurological complications after a stroke, yet there are few urodynamic studies of patients with cerebellar stroke. We report the video urodynamic findings of 15 patients with cerebellar stroke, including eight patients with ischemic and seven with hemorrhagic stroke. Their mean age was 75 +/- 13.4 years and the mean interval from stroke to video urodynamic study was 11.2 +/- 17.9 months.

Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communicat

Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communication deficits, and motor perseverations. Data on psychological Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor dysfunctions are so far not available. Previous studies have suggested that

the loss of one copy of the gene SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) is related to the neurobehavioral phenotype. Additional genes proximal to SHANK3 are also likely to play a role in the phenotype of patients with larger deletions. The present paper describes two adult brothers with an identical 2.15 Mb 22qter (22q13.32q13.33) deletion, of whom the youngest was referred for evaluation of recurrent mood changes. In both patients, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed hypoplasia of the vermis cerebelli. Extensive clinical examinations led to a final diagnosis of atypical bipolar disorder, of which symptoms fully remitted during treatment with a mood stabilizer. In the older brother, a similar AR-13324 inhibitor psychopathological picture appeared to be present, although less severe and with a later onset. It is concluded that the behavioral phenotype of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome comprises absent or delayed speech and perseverations with associated autistic-like features, whereas its psychopathological

phenotype comprises an atypical bipolar disorder. The latter may have implications for the treatment regime of the syndrome-related Thiazovivin datasheet behavioral disturbances.”
“Case Description-A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening

dyspnea of 9 months’ duration.

Clinical Findings-Multiple masses in the nasopharynx were detected via endoscopic and radiographic examinations. Cytologic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens of I mass revealed round yeasts with thick nonstaining capsules and occasional narrow-based budding that resembled cryptococcal organisms.

Treatment and Outcome-Oral administration of fluconazole and organic ethylenediamine dihydriodide and intermittent intralesional injections with fluconazole, amphotericin B, and formalin resulted in resolution of lesions for a period of 2.5 years. The horse then developed exophthalmos, recurring clinical signs, and extensive nasopharyngeal masses. The masses were surgically debulked via a large frontonasal bone flap, and the horse was treated with IV injections of amphotericin B and long-term oral administration of fluconazole. Clinical signs did not recur in the following 2-year period. A presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis was made following cytologic and histologic evaluations of the masses; results of serologic analysis and fungal culture confirmed infection with Cryptococcus neoformans.

0) During the processing of the EGCG-enriched green tea drink, a

0). During the processing of the EGCG-enriched green tea drink, all the process unit operations, except heat-treatment, had no impact on catechin concentrations. In addition, in commercially available tea drinks, except enriched green tea drinks, their catechin Citarinostat in vitro contents

are very low to provide health benefits. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To determine the diagnostic indexes of lymph node ultrasonography (US) of the axillary and supraclavicular regions for detecting lymph node recurrence (LNR) after breast cancer surgery and assess the effect of lymph node evaluation on prognosis during bilateral breast US.

Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approved this retrospective study

and waived informed consent. Between January 2003 and December 2004, 3982 lymph node US examinations, including bilateral axillary and supraclavicular areas, were performed in 1817 women (mean age, 49.9 years; range, 22-86 years) after breast cancer surgery, nine of whom had palpable lesions. Final diagnosis was based on cytopathologic results, clinical follow-up, and imaging studies for at least 12 months after breast US. Diagnostic indexes of US for detecting LNR were assessed. The frequency of distant metastases between patients with ipsilateral LNR and those without was compared. Three-year mortality rates of patients with ipsilateral LNR only and those with Akt inhibitor ic50 distant metastases were evaluated.

Results: Of 1817 patients, 54 had suspicious LNR at US (28 at first, 20 at second, five at third, and one at fourth US examination). Thirty-nine

of 1817 patients (2.1%), including nine with palpable lesions, had LNR, 11 of whom had ipsilateral LNR only. At first lymph node US, LNR was detected in 17 patients; at second, in 10; at third, in two; and at fourth, in one. Nine had false-negative results. The respective sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of lymph node US for detecting LNR per woman was 76.9% (30 of 39), 98.7% (1754 of 1778), 98.2% (1784 of 1817), 55.6% (30 of 54), and 99.5% (1754 of 1763); those of first lymph node US were 85.0% (17 of 20), 99.4% (1786 of 1797), 99.2% (1803 of 1817), 60.7% (17 of 28), and 99.8% (1786 learn more of 1789); and those of total US examinations were 78.0% (32 of 41), 99.4% (3917 of 3941), 99.2% (3949 of 3982), 57.1% (32 of 56), and 99.8% (3917 of 3926). Distant metastases were found more frequently in patients with ipsilateral LNR (62%) than in those without (2.3%) (P < .0001). The 3-year mortality rate of patients with ipsilateral LNR only was significantly lower than that in patients with distant metastases (P = .03).

Conclusion: Ipsilateral LNR is a predictor of distant metastasis, and lymph node evaluation during breast US is useful for early detection of LNR in asymptomatic patients.

Sugammadex may play an important role in fast-track bariatric ane

Sugammadex may play an important role in fast-track bariatric anesthesia.”
“Chronic kidney disease (CKD) Fludarabine solubility dmso has now emerged as a public health priority, and there is an increasing

demand by patients and health care organisations that the quality of care delivered by renal units to CKD patients be systematically monitored and evaluated. The Italian Society of Nephrology (SIN) has started an initiative aimed at promoting a quality certification process specifically focused on CKD. To this end, SIN started a collaboration with an independent Italian company which is a partner of Joint Commission International (JCI), a nonprofit international organisation dedicated to the promotion of quality improvement selleck inhibitor and safety of health services. As a result of this collaboration, a document describing a voluntary

certification process developed based on JCI criteria was produced by SIN. This document comprises 2 parts. Herein (Part I) we deal with standards for clinical care delivery and performance measurements related to CKD care. Programme management and clinical information management will be presented in a separate manuscript (Part II).”
“S-1 is an oral anticancer drug widely used in postoperative adjuvant therapy for patients in Japan with stage II/III gastric cancer. Candidates for more intense adjuvant treatments need to be identified, particularly among patients with stage III cancer.

Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted for patients with stage II/III gastric cancer who underwent surgery and received S-1 postoperatively between 2000 and 2010.

Factors indicating poor prognosis identified by univariate analysis include male sex (P = 0.022), age a parts per thousand yen67 years (P = 0.021), intestinal-type histology (P = 0.049), lymph node ratio a parts per thousand yen16.7 % (P < 0.0001),

open surgery (P = 0.039), as well as the 13th JGCA stage (P < 0.0001) and the 14th JGCA/7th International Union Against Cancer (UICC) stage (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node ratio a parts per thousand Torin 1 clinical trial yen16.7 % and intestinal-type histology were significant as predictors of prognosis, independent from the pathological stages. Based on these and other findings, stage IIIC cancer on the 14th JGCA/7th UICC stage system in combination with the lymph node ratio could identify patients with extremely high risk for recurrence

Our current findings suggest that lymph node ratio a parts per thousand yen16.7 % in combination with the new staging system could be a useful prognostic indicator in advanced gastric cancer. Because these high-risk patients cannot be identified preoperatively by any diagnostic tool, further improvement in postoperative adjuvant therapy is warranted.”
“Gastric banding remains a common procedure worldwide.

The maximum selenic content determined by ICP-AES was 2925 mu g g

The maximum selenic content determined by ICP-AES was 2925 mu g g(-1). The selenide CSP (Se-CSP) was characterised by the methods of UV spectra, FT-IR, Raman spectra and X-ray PKC412 datasheet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the hydroxyl hydrogen of the sugar moieties was substituted by Se=O. Thermal stability of Se-CSP was also measured by TG-DTA.”
“The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of total Tau (T-tau), phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau) and beta-amyloid peptide

(A beta(42)) reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low A beta(42) and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence

of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.”
“Introduction: Central to drug discovery and development is to comprehend the target(s), potency, efficacy and safety of drug molecules using pharmacological assays. Owing to their ability to provide a holistic view of drug actions in native cells, label-free find more biosensor-enabled cell phenotypic assays have been emerging as new generation phenotypic assays for drug discovery. Despite the benefits associated with wide pathway coverage, high sensitivity, high information content, non-invasiveness and real-time kinetics, label-free cell phenotypic assays are often viewed to be a blackbox in the era of target-centric drug discovery. Methods:

This article first reviews the biochemical and biological complexity of drug-target interactions, and then discusses the key characteristics of label-free cell phenotypic assays and presents a LY2157299 datasheet five-step strategy to troubleshooting and deconvoluting the label-free cell phenotypic profiles of drugs. Results: Drug-target interactions are intrinsically complicated. Label-free cell phenotypic signatures of drugs mirror the innate complexity of drug-target interactions, and can be effectively deconvoluted using the five-step strategy. Discussion: The past decades have witnessed dramatic expansion of pharmacological assays ranging from molecular to phenotypic assays, which is coincident with the realization of the innate complexity of drug-target interactions. The clinical features of a drug are defined by how it operates at the system level and by its distinct polypharmacology, ontarget, phenotypic and network pharmacology.

Results: Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was

Results: Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was >0.80 for the BPI, the WOMAC and five of the eight SF-36 scales The pattern of associations of

the two BPI scales with corresponding and non-corresponding scales of the WOMAC and SF-36 largely supported the construct validity of the BPI. The responsiveness indices for change from baseline to 1 year after THR ranged from 1.52 to 2.05 for the BPI scales, from 1.69 to 2.84 for the WOMAC scales, and from 0.25 (general health) to 2.77 (bodily pain) for the SF-36 scales.

Conclusions: The BPI showed acceptable reliability, construct validity and responsiveness in patients with OA undergoing THR. BPI is short and therefore is easy to use and score, though the instrument offers few advantages over and duplicates scales Bafilomycin A1 supplier of more comprehensive instruments, such as the WOMAC and SF-36.”
“Anthocyanin content of potato tubers is a trait that is attracting increasing attention as the potential nutritional benefits of this class of compound become apparent. However, our understanding of potato tuber anthocyanin

accumulation is not complete. The aim of this study was to use a potato microarray to investigate gene expression patterns associated with the accumulation of purple tuber anthocyanins. The advanced potato selections, CO97216-3P/PW and CO97227-2P/PW, developed by conventional breeding procedures, produced tubers with incomplete expression of tuber selleck chemical flesh pigmentation. This feature permits sampling pigmented and non-pigmented tissues from the same tubers, in essence, isolating the factors responsible for pigmentation from confounding

genetic, environmental, and developmental effects. An examination of the transcriptome, Selleckchem LCL161 coupled with metabolite data from purple pigmented sectors and from non-pigmented sectors of the same tuber, was undertaken to identify these genes whose expression correlated with elevated or altered polyphenol composition. Combined with a similar study using eight other conventional cultivars and advanced selections with different pigmentation, it was possible to produce a refined list of only 27 genes that were consistently differentially expressed in purple tuber tissues compared with white. Within this list are several new candidate genes that are likely to impact on tuber anthocyanin accumulation, including a gene encoding a novel single domain MYB transcription factor.”
“A novel pH-sensitive hydrogel system composed of itaconic acid (IA) and N-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl] methacrylamide was designed. This system was prepared by aqueous copolymerization with N,N-methylene bisacrylamide as a chemical crosslinker. The chemical structure of the hydrogels was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The microstructure and morphology of the hydrogels were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Trough serum sirolimus levels were elevated in 3/5 patients with

Trough serum sirolimus levels were elevated in 3/5 patients with pneumonitis. Sirolimus was withdrawn in all five patients with complete resolution of symptoms and radiological findings.

Pneumonitis is a relatively common side effect of sirolimus in liver transplant patients and can occur despite normal therapeutic blood levels. It is reversible on stopping the medication. Early recognition is important to prevent unnecessary investigations and prolonged morbidity.”
“Background: improvement in renal function has been noted in some lung allograft recipients with chronic kidney

disease (CKD) converted from a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)- to a sirolimus (SRL)-based immunosuppressive regimen. However, not all patients have such a positive response. PD0332991 in vivo We sought to investigate independent predictors of a favorable renal response in a cohort of lung transplant recipients.

Methods: We retrospectively studied 56 lung transplant recipients with CKD, defined as a pre-conversion estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <= 60 ml/min/1.73

m(2), who had been converted to CNI-sparing regimens using SRL (CNI-free: n = 10; CNI dose reduction + SRL: n = 46). Proteinuria prior to conversion, defined as >= 1(+) on urine dipstick, was determined when available (n = 51). Changes in mean eGFR post-conversion and. independent predictors of a favorable renal response, defined as a rise in eGFR >= 20% within 1 month, were investigated.

Results: Mean eGFR at conversion was 35 +/- 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2), increasing by 8 +/- 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.01) by 1 month post-conversion, AZD6244 ic50 a trend that remained significant out to 18 months. β-Nicotinamide mouse A total of 43% (n = 24) of patients had a rise in eGFR >= 20%. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) remained stable in survivors maintained on SRL

and only 1 rejection episode occurred. When controlling for gender, age, pre-conversion eGFR and CNI-free vs CNI-dose reduction, the only variable that remained independently predictive of a favorable renal response was absence of proteinuria, with an odds ratio = 3.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 12.5, P = 0.05).

Conclusions: Non-proteinuric lung transplant survivors with CKD are more likely to respond favorably from a renal standpoint after conversion to SRL with CNI-dose reduction or elimination. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009;28:564-71. Copyright (C) 2009 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.”
“Bisphosphonates are a class of chemical compounds used in the treatment of a variety of bone-related conditions. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a well-recognised complication. C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CTX) estimation has been suggested as an indicator for the risk of BRONJ. It was reported that values < 100 pg/ml represent a high risk of developing BRONJ following surgery and those between 100 and 150 pg/ml, a moderate risk.

The reoperation rates were higher in patients receiving a contine

The reoperation rates were higher in patients receiving a continent cutaneous diversion or bladder substitution. Blood loss was higher in high-volume units; otherwise, surgical volume did not affect mortality rates, cancer-specific survival or reoperation rates.”
“The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic relevance of the presenting bladder volume (PBV) at urodynamics in women. Its measurement is most accurately made by adding the voided volume at uroflowmetry and the postvoid residual. The study involved 1,140 women presenting for their initial urogynecological assessment. Multivariate analysis of the relationships between high or low PBVs and different

clinical and urodynamic variables. Median PBV was 174 mL. In overall terms, women with lower PBVs (0-174 mL) are significantly more likely to be older, of lower parity (0-1), have the symptom of nocturia, and the final diagnoses of Baf-A1 sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity. These women are significantly less likely to have posterior vaginal and apical vaginal prolapse. Women with higher PBVs (over 174 mL) are significantly less likely to have either bladder storage diagnoses. The relatively low median PBV might reduce the demonstration of clinical GDC-0068 order stress leakage and restrict the interpretation

of uroflowmetry data.”
“The potential genotoxicity (nuclear anomalies, damage to single-strand DNA) and pinocytic adherence activity of two (glyphosate-based and paraquat-based) commercial herbicides to earthworm coelomocytes (immune cells in the coelomic cavity) were assessed. Coelomocytes were extracted from earthworms (Pheretima peguana) exposed to concentrations <LC50 of glyphosate-based or paraquat-based herbicides on filter paper for 48 h. Three assays were performed: Micronucleus (light microscopy count of micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei), Comet (epifluorescent microscope and LUCIA image analyzer measure

of tail DNA %, tail length, and tail moment), and Neutral Red (to detect Y-27632 mouse phagocytic or pinocytic activity). The LC50 value for paraquat was 65-fold lower than for glyphosate indicating that paraquat was far more acutely toxic to P. peguana. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences from the control group in total coelomocyte micronuclei, binuclei, and trinuclei frequencies of earthworms exposed to glyphosate at 25 x 10(-1) (10(-3) LC50) and paraquat at 39 x 10(-5) (10(-4) LC50) mu g cm(-2) filter paper. In earthworms exposed to glyphosate, no differences in tail DNA%, tail length, and tail moment of coelomocytes were detected. In contrast, for paraquat at 10(-1) LC50 concentration, there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between tail DNA % and tail length, and at LC50 concentration, tail moment was also significantly different when compared with controls. A decline in pinocytic adherence activity in coelomocytes occurred on exposure to glyphosate or paraquat at 10(-3) LC50 concentration.