Previously, using genome-wide expression profiling studies, we have shown an inverse relationship of STAT6 and cholesterol biosynthesis and also identified FOXJ2 binding sites in the upstream region of 3 key genes (HMGCR, HMGCSI and IDI1) of the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Our previous study also provided clues toward the anti-apoptotic role played by STAT6. For better understanding of the cellular response and underlying signaling pathways activated by STAT6 silencing, BLZ945 concentration we examined the changes in miRNome profile after the siRNA-mediated silencing of STAT6 gene in NCI-H460 cells using LNA-based miRNA microarray. Our analysis showed significant downregulation of
miRNAs, let-7b and miR-197, out of which miR-197 was predicted to target FOXJ2. We here show that miR-197 not only negatively regulates FOXJ2 expression through direct binding to its respective binding site in its 3′UTR
but also alters total cholesterol levels by regulating genes associated with cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. We further demonstrated that STAT6 silencing selleck chemicals elicited ER stress-mediated apoptosis in NCI-H460 cells through C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) induction, alteration of BH3 only proteins expression and ROS production. The apoptosis induced by STAT6 downregulation was partially reversed by NAC, the ROS scavenger. Based on the above findings, we suggest that ER stress plays a major role in STAT6-induced apoptosis. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A critical step in understanding the neural basis of human cognitive functions is to identify neuronal types in the neocortex. In this study, we performed whole-cell recording from human cortical slices and found a distinct subpopulation of neurons with intrinsic persistent activity that could be triggered by single action potentials (APs) but terminated by bursts of APs. This persistent activity was associated with a depolarizing plateau potential induced by the activation of a persistent Na+ current. Single-cell RT-PCR revealed that these neurons were inhibitory interneurons. This type of neuron was found in different cortical regions, including
temporal, frontal, occipital, and parietal cortices in human and also in frontal check details and temporal lobes of nonhuman primate but not in rat cortical tissues, suggesting that it could be unique to primates. The characteristic persistent activity in these inhibitory interneurons may contribute to the regulation of pyramidal cell activity and participate in cortical processing.”
“Background and aims: There has been much interest in exercise interventions as a primary behavioral prevention strategy against cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a multicomponent exercise program on physical and dual-task performances in community-dwelling older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
sTfR concentrations were similar in children with ferritin concentrations smaller than 6 mu g/l and bigger than = 12 mu g/l. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that the discriminative value of Ret-Hb and sTfR for the detection of iron depletion is limited. Our findings suggest that ferritin is the most useful biomarker in the screening of iron depletion in healthy
children in high-income countries. However, ideally, reference ranges of iron status biomarkers should be based on studies showing that children with concentrations outside reference ranges have poor neurodevelopmental outcomes.”
“Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers STA-9090 chemical structure were developed and validated for Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut tree) population genetic studies. This species is a widespread monotypic Amazonian tree with high non-timber economic value. Unfortunately, Brazil nut production is currently less than 25% of historical production levels, because of extensive deforestation. All pairs of primers produced clearly interpretable and polymorphic bands. No linkage disequilibrium was observed in an analysis of 46 individuals from one population, three to seven alleles per locus were observed; the expected find more heterozygosity ranged from 0.378 to 0.978, with significant heterozygote excess for four loci. An analysis of individuals from two
populations showed private alleles at all loci. These primer pairs will be useful for population studies, especially for comparing samples from different parts of the Amazon forest.”
“Genus Onobrychis is an important forage crop consisting
of approximately 130 annual and perennial species. The present research focused on the cytological studies of Embryogenic (E) and Non-Embryogenic (NE) callus as well as root meristem cells of in vitro and in vivo grown plants. On the contrary to the previous studies, a diploid viciifolia variety with 2n= 2x= 16 chromosomes was observed for the first time in Onobrychis viciifolia Scop Syn. Onobrychis sativa L. Mitotic division Selleck ACY-241 was in general regular for all the growth conditions, but some such division irregularities as cytomixis, binucleate cells, micronucleus, asynchronous nucleus and chromosome bridge were also observed particularly in non-embryogenic callus samples. Ratio of nuclear to cell area of callus was slightly less than those in in vivo and in vitro values. Polyploidy level of DNA (C-value) was only indicated in callus. G(1) had the highest percentage of nucleus among different stages of the interphase in in vitro and in vivo growth cultures. Karyotypic formula was 10 m+6 sm and a secondary constriction was distinguished in the short arm of the second pair chromosomes. Ultimately, scanning electron microscopy was employed to differentiate between root cells of the in vitro and in vivo growth systems.
The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of calcaneal fractures depend on the location and type determined Selleck Napabucasin by the Sanders classification. With the help of measurements on lateral view radiographs like the Bohler’s angle, the angle of Gissane, the calcaneal inclination angle and the calcaneal facet height, we can predict the severity of the trauma and prognosis by assessing the collapse of the calcaneus. On computed tomography (CT), calcaneal fractures which reach into the joint space can be classified
by the Sanders classification system according to the number of fragments. In this study, we tried to determine whether calcaneal fracture severity determined by angle and facet height measurements on lateral X-ray radiographs correlate with the Sanders classification. Materials and methods Among 69 patients diagnosed with calcaneal fractures, we performed a retrospective study by analysing the Bohler’s angle, the angle of Gissane, the calcaneal inclination angle and the calcaneal facet height on digital lateral X-rays and by classifying the fractures according to the Sanders classification by CT. We compared the results of the two different imaging modalities. Results We Stem Cell Compound Library solubility dmso found that, as the Sanders classification type became more severe from type 1 to type 4, a general decrease was observed in the Bohler’s angle, the inclination angle and the facet length,
whereas a general increase was observed for the mean values of the angle of Gissane. Conclusion These findings suggest
that measurements obtained from lateral X-rays coincide with the Sanders classification and, therefore, might indicate the prognosis.”
“Background: NAD-independent L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-iLDH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri SDM can potentially be used for the kinetic resolution check details of small aliphatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids. However, this enzyme showed rather low activity towards aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acids.\n\nResults: Val-108 of L-iLDH was changed to Ala by rationally site-directed mutagenesis. The L-iLDH mutant exhibited much higher activity than wide-type L-iLDH towards L-mandelate, an aromatic 2-hydroxycarboxylic acid. Using the engineered Escherichia coli expressing the mutant L-iLDH as a biocatalyst, 40 g.L-1 of DL-mandelic acid was converted to 20.1 g.L-1 of D-mandelic acid (enantiomeric purity higher than 99.5%) and 19.3 g.L-1 of benzoylformic acid.\n\nConclusions: A new biocatalyst with high catalytic efficiency toward an unnatural substrate was constructed by rationally re-design mutagenesis. Two building block intermediates (optically pure D-mandelic acid and benzoylformic acid) were efficiently produced by the one-pot biotransformation system.”
“Objective: To assess the frequency of smoking among students in medical and non-medical colleges of Rawalpindi and to explore the differences in smoking behaviour of the two college students.\n\nStudy Design: A cross-sectional comparative study.
“Rationale: Angiosarcomas of soft tissue represent a heterogenous group of rare sarcomas with specific clinical behaviour and risk factors. Paclitaxel appears to induce tumour control in a higher proportion of patients with angiosarcoma, as compared to other sarcomas. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the anti-tumour activity of this compound in a multicentre setting.\n\nMethod: Clinical data from patients with angiosarcomas of soft tissue
treated with single Autophagy inhibitor agent paclitaxel were collected from the centres of the soft tissue and bone sarcoma group of EORTC, using a standardised data collection form. Paclitaxel could be given every three weeks, or weekly. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software.\n\nResults: Data from 32 patients were collected from 10 centres. There were 17 males, IS females, with a median age
of 60.4 years (range, 25-91). Primary angiosarcomas were located in scalp and face in 8 patients (25%) and at other primary sites in 24 patients (75%). All patients had intermediate (n = 13) or high grade (n = 19) primary tumours. Thirteen (40%) patients had been pretreated see more with doxorubicin-based first-line-chemotherapy and three of them (9%) had also received second-line chemotherapy with ifosfamide. Eleven (34%) patients had been irradiated before as treatment for angiosarcoma. In 8 (25%) patients, the angiosarcoma occurred at sites of prior radiation therapy for other malignancies. The response rate was 62% (21/32) in the whole series, 75% (6/8) in scalp angiosarcomas and 58% (14/24) in other primary sites. The median time to progression was 7.6 months (range, 1-42) for the whole group. For the face/scalp group it was 9.5 months, and for patients with angiosarcomas at other sites it was 7.0 months, respectively.\n\nConclusion: DZNeP Paclitaxel was found to be
an active agent in angiosarcoma of soft tissue in this retrospective analysis. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective randomised phase II study. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Cadaveric laboratory study.\n\nObjective. To compare the accuracy, efficiency, and safety of intraoperative cone beam-computed tomography with navigation (O-ARM) with traditional intraoperative fluoroscopy (C-ARM) for the placement of pedicle screws.\n\nSummary of Background Data. Radiation exposure remains a concern with traditional methods of intraoperative imaging in spine surgery. The use of O-ARM has been proposed for more accurate and efficient spinal instrumentation. Understanding radiation imparted to patients and surgeons by O-ARM is important for assessing risks and benefits of this technology, especially in light of evolving indications.\n\nMethods. Four surgeons placed 160 pedicle screws on 8 cadavers without deformity. Eighty pedicle screws were placed using O-ARM and C-ARM each.
“Background Acidosis is associated with protein-energy malnutrition, inflammation, and bone disease, and low bicarbonate levels have been implicated in higher mortality rates in chronic Acalabrutinib kidney disease. Recently, the concentration of serum pregnancy-associated
plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has become accepted as a prognostic marker in hemodialysis patients. This study determined the relationship between PAPP-A and bicarbonate levels in these patients. Methods The study enrolled 65 hemodialysis patients (41 males, 24 females) and 26 control subjects (11 males, 15 females). Serum PAPP-A, intact parathormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus (P), and bicarbonate levels were measured. Correlations between PAPP-A and bicarbonate, iPTH, calcium, and phosphorus were evaluated. Results Median PAPP-A levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients [15.1 ( smaller than 0.03-158.8) ng/ml] than in control subjects [6.6 ( smaller than 0.03-16.4) ng/ml] (P smaller
than 0.05). There were statistically significant correlations between serum PAPP-A and bicarbonate, iPTH, and P in hemodialysis patients but not in control subjects. Conclusion Elevation of serum PAPP-A has been found in hemodialysis patients and its significant correlation with bicarbonate suggests that it may ABT-263 manufacturer be a prognostic factor.”
“Plasma-based methods have recently emerged as a technique for augmenting plasmid DNA delivery to skin. This delivery modality relies on the deposition of ionized gas molecules on to targeted cells or tissue to establish an electric field. It is hypothesized that this electric field results in the dielectric breakdown of cell membranes, making cells permeable to exogenous molecules. This in vivo investigation sought to optimize the intradermal delivery of a luciferase expressing plasmid DNA by modulating the total exposure to the plasma source and the plasmid DNA dose. Varying the
plasma exposure time from 2, 5, 10, and 20 min allowed the conditions resulting in the MLN4924 highest expression of luciferase to be found. These conditions correlated to the 10 minute exposure time for a plasma derived from either +8 kV or -8 kV, when the generator was operated 3 cm from the epidermal tissue surface with a helium flow rate of 15 L/min. Exposing the injected flank skin for 10 min resulted in a rise of 37.3-fold for a plasma created with +8 kV and 27.1-fold for a plasma created with -8 kV. When using this treatment time with 50, 100, or 200 mu g of a luciferase expressing plasmid, it was found that 100 mu g resulted in the highest peak luminescence. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A quantum mechanics-based scoring function for halogen bonding interaction, namely XBScore(QM), is developed based on 18,135 sets of geometrical and energetical parameters optimized atM06-2X/aug-cc-pVDZ level.
03; 95% CI 0.84 to 1.27) and no evidence of effect on clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate or ectopic pregnancy rate.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nThe use of a medium dose of long-acting FSH is a safe treatment option and equally effective compared to daily FSH. Further research is needed to determine if long-acting FSH is safe and effective for use in hyper- or poor responders and in women with all causes of subfertility.”
“Previous PET and fMRI brain imaging studies targeting neural networks processing itch sensation have used histamine as the sole itch inducer. In contrast with histamine, cowhage-induced itch is
mediated via proteinase activated receptors PAR2 and is transmitted through a separate spinothalamic pathway, therefore imaging the brain activation evoked
by cowhage could provide further insight into central processing of itch. We report for the first time a functional AG-881 cost MRI Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) study of neuronal processing of itch induced by cowhage, analyzed in contrast with histamine-induced itch. We also explored the brain responses induced by histamine and cowhage combined in a tight sequence. The results of our analyses obtained in a group of 15 healthy volunteers suggested that cowhage and histamine co-activated a core group of brain structures, while also revealing notable differences. Core areas activated by both stimuli were found in the thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, posterior GSK2879552 parietal cortex, superior and middle temporal cortices, PCC. ACC, precuneus and cuneus. Cowhage induced a notably distinct and more extensive SU5402 mouse involvement of the insular cortex, claustrum, basal ganglia, putamen, thalamic nuclei and pulvinar. The differences observed between these two itch modalities were investigated to determine the impact of quantitative versus qualitative factors, and correlations between itch intensity and the patterns in brain activation were explored. Our analysis revealed that the most significant differences between cowhage and histamine itch were not affected by stimulus intensity, although a subset of regions displayed
activations which were intensity-dependent. The combined application of cowhage and histamine highlighted the role of insula and claustrum in the processing of both itch modalities in the same time. The present results suggest the existence of overlapping but also distinct neuronal networks processing these two different types of itch. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Background\n\nThe association between hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis remains obscure in dogs. A possible role of hypertriglyceridemia as a cause of pancreatitis in Miniature Schnauzers has been suspected.\n\nHypothesis/Objectives\n\nTo compare serum triglyceride concentrations between Miniature Schnauzers with and without a recent history of pancreatitis.
Operative mortality risk was estimated statistically by the Veterans Affairs mortality risk Quizartinib datasheet estimate and subjectively by cardiac surgeons before surgery. Observed mortality rate was 3.3% (168 deaths) at 1 month, 7.1% (360 deaths) at 1 year, and 18.5% (942 deaths) at 5 years after surgery. Physician’s risk estimate (mean [SD], 5.6% [4.4]) and statistical risk estimate (4.3% [5.1]) had modest correlation (c-index, 0.56; P<0.001). Both methods modestly overestimated operative mortality risk. Statistical risk estimate was significantly better than physician’s
risk estimate in separating patients who died from those who survived at 30 days (c-index, 0.78 versus 0.73; P=0.003), at 1 year (c-index, 0.72 versus 0.61; P<0.001), and at 5 years (c-index, 0.72 versus 0.64; P<0.001) after surgery. Physician’s risk estimate was higher than statistical
risk estimate in all subgroups except high-risk patients.\n\nConclusions In patients undergoing cardiac surgery, statistical risk estimate is a better method to predict operative and long-term mortality compared with physician’s subjective risk estimate. However, both methods modestly overestimate actual operative mortality risk.”
“MODY is mainly characterised by an early onset of diabetes and a positive family history of diabetes with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. However, de novo mutations have been reported anecdotally. The aim of this study was to systematically revisit a large collection of MODY patients to determine the
minimum prevalence of de novo mutations in the most prevalent buy GSK461364 MODY genes (i.e. GCK, HNF1A, HNF4A). Analysis of 922 patients from two national MODY centres (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) identified 150 probands (16%) who came from pedigrees that did not fulfil the criterion of two generations Apoptosis inhibitor with diabetes but did fulfil the remaining criteria. The GCK, HNF1A and HNF4A genes were analysed by direct sequencing. Mutations in GCK, HNF1A or HNF4A genes were detected in 58 of 150 individuals. Parents of 28 probands were unavailable for further analysis, and in 19 probands the mutation was inherited from an asymptomatic parent. In 11 probands the mutations arose de novo. In our cohort of MODY patients from two national centres the de novo mutations in GCK, HNF1A and HNF4A were present in 7.3% of the 150 families without a history of diabetes and 1.2% of all of the referrals for MODY testing. This is the largest collection of de novo MODY mutations to date, and our findings indicate a much higher frequency of de novo mutations than previously assumed. Therefore, genetic testing of MODY could be considered for carefully selected individuals without a family history of diabetes.”
“In this mini review, we summarize our findings concerning brainstem neurons responsible for the postural, masseter, or pharyngeal muscle atonia observed during paradoxical sleep (PS) in freely moving cats.
96; 95% CI, 0.75
to 1.24), in the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group, 47 of 77 (61%) men and 24 of 43 (56%) women (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.60), and in the IAT group, 142 of 185 (77%) men and 71 of 102 (70%) women (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.17). Mortality was not different between men and women in the antithrombotic treatment group (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.16), the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group HSP990 (aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.73), or in the IAT group (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.36). Insufficient recanalization after combined IVT-IAT or IAT was similar in men and women (23% versus 22%; aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.46).\n\nConclusions-In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, no significant gender differences for outcome and recanalization were observed, regardless of treatment modality. (Stroke. 2010; 41: 2693-2696.)”
“Background\n\nTubal sterilization by hysteroscopy involves inserting a foreign body in both fallopian tubes. Over a three-month this website period, the tubal lumen is occluded by tissue growth stimulated by the insert.
Tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy has advantages over laparoscopy or mini-laparotomy, including the avoidance of abdominal incisions and the convenience of performing the procedure in an office-based setting. Pain, an important determinant of procedure acceptability, can be a concern when tubal sterilization is performed in the office.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo review all randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions to decrease pain during tubal sterilization by hysteroscopy.\n\nSearch methods\n\nFrom January to March 2011, check details we searched the computerized databases of MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, and CINAHL for relevant trials. We searched for current trials via Clinicaltrials.gov. We also examined the reference lists of pertinent articles and wrote to known investigators for information about other published or unpublished trials.\n\nSelection
criteria\n\nWe included all randomized controlled trials that evaluated pain management at the time of sterilization by hysteroscopy. The intervention could be compared to another intervention or placebo.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nInitial data were extracted by one review author. A second review author verified all extracted data. Whenever possible, the analysis was conducted with all women randomized and in the original assigned groups. Data were analyzed using RevMan software. Pain was measured using either a 10-cm or 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). When pain was measured at multiple points during the procedure, the overall pain score was considered the primary treatment effect. If this was not measured, a summation of all pain scores for the procedure was considered to be the primary treatment effect. For continuous variables, the mean difference with 95% confidence interval was computed.\n\nMain results\n\nTwo trials met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 167.
It is characterised by placental vascular dysfunction. Despite the numerous studies on preeclampsia, studies evaluating proliferation of villous trophoblasts in preeclamptic placentas are limited. Ki67 is a proliferation marker that expresses in the nuclei of proliferating
cells. In find more this study, we examined the proliferation of villous trophoblasts in placentas of preeclamptic patients by using Ki67 and compared it with placentas of normal pregnant patients. The current study is a prospective one, including 15 placentas from preeclamptic patients and 14 placentas from normal pregnancies as controls. For detection of proliferation in villous trophoblasts, Ki67 was used. The Ki67 index was 11.48 +/- 1.67% in normal patients and 15.53 +/- 2.28% in preeclamptic patients. There was a difference
in Ki67 index between the two groups (p smaller than 0.001). Our results support the opinion that trophoblasts undergo regeneration hyperplasia as a result of injuries arising on the villous surface in preeclampsia. Proliferation of trophoblasts may contribute the development of preeclampsia.”
“We investigated the effects of natural light at night selleck inhibitor (LAN) in the field and artificial LAN in the laboratory on the circadian rhythm of pupal eclosion in a tropical wild type strain of Drosophila jambulina captured at Galle, Sri Lanka (6.1 degrees N, 80.2 degrees E). The influence of natural LAN, varying in intensity from 0.004 lux (starlight intensity) to 0.45 lux (moonlight intensity), on the entrainment pattern of the circadian rhythm of eclosion at 25 degrees +/- 0.5 degrees C was examined by subjecting the mixed-aged pupae to natural cycles of light and darkness at the breeding site of this strain in the field. The eclosion peak was similar to 2 h prior to sunrise, and the 24 h rhythmicity was the most robust. Effects of artificial LAN at 25
degrees +/- 0.5 degrees C were determined in the laboratory by subjecting pupae to LD 12: 12 cycles in which the light intensity of the photophase was 500 lux in all LD cycles, while that of the scotophase was either 0 lux (complete darkness, DD), 0.5, 5, or 50 lux. In the 0 lux LAN condition (i.e., the control Selleck Natural Product Library experiment), the eclosion peak was similar to 2 h after lights-on, and the 24 h eclosion rhythm was not as strong as in the 0.5 lux LAN condition. The entrainment pattern in 0.5 lux LAN was strikingly similar to that in the field, as the 0.5 lux LAN condition is comparable to the full moonlight intensity in the tropics. LAN at 0.5 lux dramatically altered both parameters of entrainment, as the eclosion peak was advanced by similar to 4 h and the 24 h eclosion rhythm was better than that of the control experiment. LAN at 5 lux, however, resulted in a weak eclosion rhythm that peaked in the subjective forenoon. Interestingly, the 50 lux LAN condition rendered the eclosion events unambiguously arrhythmic.
Fifty six patients who underwent conventional gastrectomy were used for comparison. Results: Intra- and postoperative complications were found in 4 and 3 of 14 high risk patients, respectively. We found a significant correlation between E-PASS score and complications. E-PASS score in high risk group was significantly higher than the value in low risk group. The estimated in-hospital mortality rate was significantly different between
the two groups. When conventional gastrectomy group for high risk patients was compared, postoperative morbidity and mortality rates were similar in two surgical procedures; however E-PASS score and the estimated in-hospital mortality rate with conventional gastrectomy were significantly higher than Citarinostat chemical structure the value with laparoscopic gastrectomy. Conclusions: There were no fatal complications in high risk patients with laparoscopic gastrectomy and E-PASS score was within safety margin. Extension of laparoscopic surgery in high risk patients was feasible when careful procedure was performed by a surgical team.”
“This study explored check details the somatotopy of the motor areas of the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere, in the human brain. In a sample of 16 healthy participants, we drew 9 regions of interest (ROI)
over the primary motor area (M1), each corresponding to a well-known somatic representation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the resting state functional connectivity between each selected ROI and the motor areas of the medial wall. The main finding was the identification of a rostrocaudal gradient of connectivity in which the more we move from cranial to caudal body representation areas in M1, the more the corresponding connected area in the medial wall is shifted rostrocaudally, buy Lonafarnib confirming the somatotopic schema found in the SMA. We also reanalyzed data obtained in a previous experiment, we performed using hand and foot
motor tasks; the reanalysis consisted in traditional BOLD and functional connectivity analyses. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis of 28 studies of hand and foot motor tasks, mapping their cerebral representations using the tools provided by the Brainmap database. All data converge in confirming a somatotopic representation of the medial wall motor areas, with hand representation placed more rostrally and ventrally than that of the foot. Hum Brain Mapp 32: 1566-1579, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of referent pathologists (RPs) to the quality of diagnosis of trophoblastic diseases and to study the level of diagnostic agreement between the initial pathologists and the RPs.\n\nMETHODS: This observational retrospective study was carried between 1 November 1999 and 11 January 2011 using the database of the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Centre in Lyon.