Elevation Apitolisib ic50 of CO2 concentration increased the

value of K1/2(Ci) (the half-saturation constant) for photosynthesis, whereas high N supply lowered it. Neither short-term nor long-term CO2 enrichment had inhibitory effects on respiration rate, irrespective of the N supply, under which the algae were grown. Under high-N growth, the Q10 value of respiration was higher in the elevated-CO2-grown algae than the ambient-CO2-grown algae. Either short- or long-term exposure to CO2 enrichment decreased respiration as a proportion of gross photosynthesis (Pg) in low-N-grown H. fusiformis. It was proposed that in a future world of higher atmospheric CO2 concentration and simultaneous coastal eutrophication, the respiratory carbon flux would be more sensitive to changing temperature. “
“This study assessed the implication of oxidative stress in the mortality of cells of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. Cultures grown at 25°C were exposed to 32°C, darkness, and hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM) for 96 h. The cellular abundance, chl a concentration and content, maximum photochemical see more efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm ratio), intracellular oxidative stress (determined with dihydrorhodamine 123 [DHR]), cell mortality (revealed by SYTOX-labeling of DNA), and activation of caspase 3–like proteins were assessed every 24 h. The presence of DNA degradation in cells of M. aeruginosa was also assessed using

a terminal deoxynucletidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay at 96 h. Transferring cultures from 25°C to 32°C was generally beneficial to the cells. The cellular abundance and chl a concentration increased, and the mortality remained low (except for a transient burst at 72 h) as did the oxidative stress. In darkness, cells did

not divide, and the Fv/Fm continuously decreased with time. The slow increase in intracellular oxidative stress mafosfamide coincided with the activation of caspase 3–like proteins and a 15% and 17% increase in mortality and TUNEL-positive cells, respectively. Exposure to hydrogen peroxide had the most detrimental effect on cells as growth ceased and the Fv/Fm declined to near zero in less than 24 h. The 2-fold increase in oxidative stress matched the activation of caspase 3–like proteins and a 40% and 37% increase in mortality and TUNEL-positive cells, respectively. These results demonstrate the implication of oxidative stress in the stress response and mortality of M. aeruginosa. “
“The genus Mallomonas, a common and often abundant member of the planktic community in many freshwater habitats worldwide, consists of 180 species divided into 19 sections and 23 series. Classification of species is based largely on ultrastructural characteristics of the siliceous scales and bristles that collectively form a highly organized covering over the cell.

26 Age-group of peak prevalence varies by region, and is expected

26 Age-group of peak prevalence varies by region, and is expected to also vary by country depending on local epidemiology of HCV transmission. For example, in the U.S. cohort effects were seen that were specific to infection stemming from injection drug use in the 1970s.27 Areas with type 1 transmission such as North mTOR inhibitor America exhibit signs of the aging cohort in prevalence, i.e., a shift in age group with highest risk of HCV-sequelae between 1990 and 2005. Regions such as East Asia and Southern Latin America, without previously hypothesized cohort effects, also show signs of type 1 transmission; this suggests that these regions

may have their own cohort effects that are not as well understood or characterized. Further attention should be given to documenting the transmission patterns in different countries, particularly those that have high prevalence (such as Pakistan in South Asia), in order to inform future estimation efforts. The total prevalence estimates in this study are higher compared to those of previous anti-HCV estimates2 and some prominent findings in prevalence patterns of some regions require further discussion. In Australasia,

the estimated peak prevalence at ages 20-24 years may reflect the high incidence of HCV among PWID reported recently.28, 29 Contrary to the literature describing Australia as having very low prevalence and type 1 transmission, our findings may be due to fewer datapoints beyond age 40, resulting in borrowing of strength Miconazole and more influence from younger ages with higher prevalence for the Australasian region. Mother-to-infant Torin 1 research buy transmission is the commonest route of HCV infection in children, with a vertical transmission rate of 5%.30 In West sub-Saharan Africa, the relatively high prevalence in young children may reflect the overlapping human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and HIV-HCV coinfection in sub-Saharan Africa, which is known to increase the risk of vertical transmission of HCV and requires further investigation.31 Finally, despite the fact that Central Asia is estimated

to have the highest total prevalence based on very limited data, the high prevalence of immigrants from Uzbekistan (31%) in a study of former Soviet Union immigrants in New York suggests the plausibility of these estimates.32 In conclusion, this analysis highlights the age group with the highest probability for sequelae, i.e., the group with peak prevalence that deserves attention for screening and treatment in each region. Further, it sets the stage for modeling the current and future global burden of HCV-related disease based on seroprevalence and natural history that 5%-20% will go on to develop cirrhosis over a period of 20-30 years and 1%-5% will die from the consequences of chronic infection.33-35 This study also identifies challenges in producing useful “global” and even “regional” estimates for hepatitis C.

We have shown that phosphorylation of C/EBPb-Thr21/ by Ribosomal-

We have shown that phosphorylation of C/EBPb-Thr21/ by Ribosomal-S6 Kinase (RSK) induces injury and inflammation but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Hypothesis: Phosphorylation of C/EBPb-Thr217 induces

activation of the Inflammasome in liver macrophages and the consequent liver injury. Methods: Liver macrophages were isolated from control G/EBPb-wf, and from transgenic mice expressing either a phosphorylation mimic C/EBPb-Glu2l7, or a non-phosphorylatable G/EBPb-Ala217. The inactive Inflammasome complex was identified by the presence of procaspase-1, pro-IL-1b and proIL-18, inactive NF-қB, non-signaling MyD-88 and Interferon-Regulatory Factor (IRF)−4 while the active Inflammasome complex was identified by the presence of caspase-1, IL-1b, IL-18, ITF2357 cost nuclear NF-қB, signaling MyD-88, adaptor aSg, IfR-5 and NALP-3 (Nat lmmunol. 10: 241,2009) Results: Treatment of learn more G/EBPb-wt mice with GGl4, Fas or dimethyl-nitrosamine induced C/EBPb-Thr21/ phosphorylation, which was physically associated with the activated Inflammasome complex (caspase-1, IRF-5 ASG and NALP-3) in liver macrophages. In contrast, both the G/EBPb-Ala217 mice and G/EBPb-wt mice treated with G/EBPb-Ala217 peptides were refractory to the assembly and activation of the

Inflammasome. The C/EBPbGlu217 mice were highly susceptible to hepatotoxin-induced activation of the Inflammasome, which assembled with C/EBPbGlu217. Cultured liver macrophages from G/EBPb-wt, G/EBPbAla217 and C/EBPb-Glu217 had a response to TGFa-induced C/EBPb-Thr2 17 phosphorylation and its assembly within the activated Inflammasome essentially identical to their respective in vivo animal models. Further, Fas-L induced liver macrophage activation and severe liver injury in C/EBPb-Glu21/ mice (ALT: 1//0 丨し/ml) compared to mice expressing the G/EBPb-Ala217 transgene (ALT: 182 Iし/ml; P < 0.0001). In addition, the G/EBPb-Ala21/ peptide stimulates the switch to non-inflammatory liver macrophages after acute dimethyl-nitrosamine or GGl4 administration to G/EBPb-wt mice. The peptide or transfer of myeloid cells from G/EBPb-Ala217

(but not from G/EBPbGlu2 17) mice normalized the increased Inflammasome activation and prevented liver injury (P < 0.001 for both). Conclusion: Phosphorylation PJ34 HCl of C/EBPb-Thr2 17 is required for the Inflammasome Complex assembly and activation in liver macrophages and for the consequent liver injury. The RSKG/EBPb phosphorylation pathway is a potential therapeutic target for liver injury. Disclosures: The following people have nothing to disclose: Martina Buck, Mario Chojkier Introduction: The inflammasome is a cytosolic protein complex that is central to the production of IL-1 p, and has important roles in chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis. Activation requires two signals but it is not known how inflammasome activity is sustained.

The adoption of the roadmap concept, with testing of HBV DNA at w

The adoption of the roadmap concept, with testing of HBV DNA at week 24, might further minimize resistance. In summary, the study by

selleckchem Liu and colleagues has provided further evidence that off-treatment virological response is not durable, even with adherence to strict cessation criteria. For both HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, the ideal treatment end-points in the era of potent antiviral therapy with low resistance should be the seroclearance of HBsAg. “
“Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma represents the commonest type of pancreatic exocrine neoplasm.[1] Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is desirable but challenging. Despite improvement in imaging technology, most cases of pancreatic cancers are diagnosed at a late stage, which often precludes surgical resection.[1, 2] Prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer remains poor, with a 5-year survival rate being less than 10%.[2] Epidemiologically, pancreatic cancer has been thought to affect more people in the Western countries. Although traditionally low incidence rates of pancreatic cancer have been reported in most Asian countries, recent epidemiological

data have shown that the pancreatic cancer incidence has increased over the years in Japan and South Korea, with rates approaching https://www.selleckchem.com/products/abc294640.html that of the Western world.[3] In addition, the pancreatic cancer related mortality in these two Asian countries also approximates that in the United States and Europe.[3] In this issue of the Journal, Kongkam et al. reviewed the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Asia and the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the evaluation of pancreatic cancer.[4] While the incidence of pancreatic cancer varies in different Asian countries, the authors hope to achieve early detection

of this dreaded malignancy by the use of EUS. In this article, the authors reviewed the fundamental roles of EUS in detection, staging, and tissue acquisition by fine needle aspiration (FNA) of suspected pancreatic cancer. The potential benefits of newer technologies such as contrast harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) and EUS elastography in differentiating pancreatic cancer from other pancreatic neoplasms Immune system were also discussed. Although noninvasive cross-sectional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are often the first step in the evaluation of suspected pancreatic neoplasm, small pancreatic lesions that are not observed initially on CT or MRI but are eventually picked up by EUS are not uncommon. In studies comparing EUS with multi-detector CT, EUS is shown to have a higher detection rate for small pancreatic masses.[5-7] Accurate preoperative imaging and staging are vital to identifying potentially resectable pancreatic cancers. However, these lesions are often more difficult to detect due to their relatively smaller size.

AAV vectors have been shown to be able to introduce specific muta

AAV vectors have been shown to be able to introduce specific mutations, including insertions,

into homologous chromosomal sequences of many cell types and species.13, 14 In addition, AAV-mediated gene targeting has been shown to be more efficient than conventional techniques based on transfection or electroporation of plasmid constructs.15-17 The goal of this study was to develop a more efficient method to create pig knockout models of human diseases and to create Fah-null heterozygote pigs to PLX3397 manufacturer be used to generate homozygote Fah-null animals for future studies related to metabolic liver disease, cirrhosis, HCC, and cell and gene therapy. We used for the first time the novel chimeric AAV-DJ serotype to disrupt the porcine Fah gene by targeted gene knockout by homologous recombination. We report here on the successful and efficient generation of targeted Fah-null heterozygote fibroblasts and their use by SCNT to generate Fah-null heterozygote pigs. AAV, adeno-associated virus; CF, cystic fibrosis; FAH, fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HT1, hereditary type I tyrosinemia; Dabrafenib supplier SCNT, somatic cell nuclear transfer. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified (Qiamp; Qiagen) from pig fetal liver. Two fragments of DNA, adjacent to exon 5 of the Fah locus of chromosome 7, were amplified

using primers MG2616 and MG2678 (left homologous recombination arm; 1479 basepairs [bp]) and MG2619 and MG2680 (right homologous recombination arm; 1523 bp) and a high-fidelity polymerase (Phusion; Finnzymes). Primers were designed based on the domestic pig working draft genomic sequence (GenBank accession numbers CU468492 and CU467891).

These polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were subcloned into pCR-Blunt II-TOPO (Invitrogen) and confirmed by restriction digest and sequencing. The overall strategy to knockout the Fah gene was to insert an in-frame stop codon and a neomycin-resistance cassette (PGK-neo) into exon 5 of the porcine Fah gene. To generate a PGK-neo expression cassette, with an additional in-frame Glutamate dehydrogenase TGA stop codon at the 5′ end, a 1681 bp fragment was amplified using primers MG2622 and MG2679, subcloned into pCR-Blunt II-TOPO, and confirmed by restriction digest and sequencing. To generate the complete targeting vector, each fragment was sequentially subcloned into pcDNA3.1- (Invitrogen) and orientation confirmed by restriction digest and sequencing. Once the full-sized 4683 bp-targeting construct was generated, it was cloned into an AAV2 plasmid backbone, thus providing it with the inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences required for viral packaging. Plasmids containing the AAV-DJ shuffle capsid sequences were generously provided by Dr. Mark Kay at Stanford. AAV-DJ virus containing the Fah-null construct was produced using a standard triple plasmid transfection protocol, as described.

Thus, we propose the transfer of Amphidoma caudata to the genus A

Thus, we propose the transfer of Amphidoma caudata to the genus Azadinium and, consequently, the rehabilitation of the original tabulation of the genus Amphidoma Stein. To discriminate the two morphotypes, we propose a rank of variety with the following designations: Azadinium caudatum var. caudatum and Azadinium caudatum var. margalefii. “
“Little is known about the indirect effects

of nonlethal grazing impacts in mesograzer–seaweed interactions. Using laboratory experiments, the effect of grazing by the seasonally abundant kelp-associated gastropod Lacuna vincta on subsequent kelp consumption by one kelp-associated (Idotea granulosa) and one nonassociated species of isopod (I. emarginata) was determined. Measurements of the toughness and elemental composition of different parts of the sporophyte of Laminaria digitata (Huds.) J. V. Lamour., as well as grazer-induced changes in the palatability of the blade, Bcl-2 inhibitor were conducted to selleck inhibitor explore possible mechanisms of indirect effects. In situ grazing pressure was the highest between July and September, with the blade being the preferred part of the kelp sporophyte, despite missing differences in the elemental composition among kelp parts. The laboratory experiments supported our hypotheses in that kelp consumption by both species of isopods was lower on intact than on L. vincta–damaged areas of the blade. This pattern was not caused by grazing-induced

changes in blade palatability. Instead, the observed increase in isopod consumption following grazing by L. vincta resulted more likely from the combined effects of a reduction in the toughness of L. vincta–damaged kelp blades and some unknown gastropod cue(s).

These results suggest that kelp-associated and nonassociated mesograzers may benefit from the nonlethal grazing impact of L. vincta due to changes in physical traits of the seaweed. Thus, the nonlethal grazing impact by one species of mesograzer can positively modify the trophic interactions between kelp and other Buspirone HCl potential competitors, suggesting that the interactions among mesograzers might be more complex than previously assumed. “
“The SSU (16S) rRNA gene was used to investigate the phylogeny of the cyanobacterial genus Lyngbya as well as examined for its capacity to discriminate between different marine species of Lyngbya. We show that Lyngbya forms a polyphyletic genus composed of a marine lineage and a halophilic/brackish/freshwater lineage. In addition, we found morphological and genetic evidence that Lyngbya spp. often grow in association with other microorganisms, in particular smaller filamentous cyanobacteria such as Oscillatoria, and propose that these associated microorganisms have led to extensive phylogenetic confusion in identification of Lyngbya spp. At the species level, the phylogenetic diversity obtained from the comparison of 16S rRNA genes exceeded morphological diversity in Lyngbya.

(HEPATOLOGY 2010) Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a diverse po

(HEPATOLOGY 2010.) Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a diverse population of cells that can be isolated from multiple tissues, including bone marrow, fat, and others. Caspase inhibitor Bone marrow MSCs are stromal cells that support hematopoiesis during embryogenesis and in adult life. Their mesodermal origin is reflected by their ability to differentiate into fat, cartilage, and bone in vitro.2 In addition to their ability to differentiate into mesodermal tissues,

MSC can differentiate into other cell types, including hepatocyte-like cells.3 The ability of MSCs to differentiate into multiple cell types, and the relative ease by which they can be expanded in culture makes them attractive candidates for therapy in a variety of conditions. In this context they have been tested in animal models of acute liver injury.4–6 The initial step required is localization to the site of tissue injury. After localization, MSCs have been proposed to have a range of functional effects. In the liver,

for example, there is evidence for MSCs differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells, as well as inducing stimulation of endogenous hepatocyte proliferation.4 In keeping with their highly plastic phenotype, MSCs also may differentiate into the matrix, depositing hepatic myofibroblasts, but this is controversial.7, 8 There is a requirement for signals that will localize MSCs to the area within the liver with hepatocyte death, and also signals that will initiate MSC differentiation. Adenosine is produced both extracellularly and intracellularly by dephosphorylation of adenosine selleck triphosphates, diphosphates, and monophosphates, and by degradation selleck chemicals llc of nucleic acids through the uric acid pathway during cellular injury.9, 10 These sources of adenosine result in elevated levels at sites of tissue ischemia, cellular apoptosis, and inflammation, with concentrations increasing more than 100-fold from the 30-300-nM range present in health.11, 12 Elevated levels of adenosine are known to induce a variety of adaptive changes in response to tissue injury via four receptor subtypes: A1, A2a, A2b, and

A3. These include matrix remodeling, immune regulation, and angiogenesis.13 The role of adenosine in localization of stem cells to sites of tissue injury is not known. Our goal was to study whether adenosine induces MSC chemotaxis, to determine whether adenosine regulates the response of MSC to established chemoattractants, and to investigate whether adenosine has any role in differentiation of MSCs. Here we demonstrate that adenosine alone does not affect MSC chemotaxis, but it significantly inhibits hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)–induced chemotaxis. We further identify an important role for down-regulation of Rac1 in the inhibitory effect of adenosine on MSC chemotaxis. In addition to providing a chemotactic stop signal to MSC, adenosine also stimulates transcription of genes potentially associated with MSC differentiation.

54 These findings suggest that IRF-3, but not MyD88 plays a criti

54 These findings suggest that IRF-3, but not MyD88 plays a critical role in IR-induced TLR4 activation. Other investigators have also shown that defective TLR4, not TLR2 signalling, increases liver HO1 transcript Y-27632 purchase and protein expression, with cross talk between TLR4 and HO1 proposed as an important mechanism mediating IR injury.57

The term “apoptosis,” meaning the “falling off” of cells, was first coined by Kerr in 1972 to describe a distinct form of cell death that differed morphologically from necrosis.58 Apoptosis is a controlled form of programmed cell death which allows the removal of damaged, senescent or unwanted cells in multicellular organisms without destruction of the cellular environment.

Its activation is regulated by a balance between a multitude of signals. Apoptosis is rarely seen in normal liver, however when it does occur, apoptotic cell death is rapid (2–3 h).59 Morphologically, cell shrinkage occurs as one of the earliest changes.58 It results in loss of contact between adjacent cells associated with disruption of cell surface elements such as microvilli and cell-cell junctions. Nuclear changes occur characterized by condensation of chromatin into crescentic caps at the periphery of the nucleus.58 The chromatin eventually fragments to produce internucleosomal find more DNA fragmentation products of 180–200 base pair chain length.59 This underlies the basis of the “DNA ladder” seen on agarose gel eletrophoresis and the labelling of the 3′-OH ends of DNA strand breaks have been used as markers for apoptosis. Necrosis, in contrast, is associated with non-specific hydrolysis of DNA into smaller fragments and constituents.59 Apoptotic cells ultimately convolute, separate into membrane-bound subcellular fragments of nucleus and intact organelles which aggregate, known as “apoptotic bodies.” Throughout this process, cellular membrane integrity is intact, preventing the release of potentially toxic intracellular contents into the extracellular

space. Apoptotic bodies are rapidly phagocytosed by nearby tissue macrophages. Necrotic cell death occurs as a result selleck kinase inhibitor of acute cellular injury. It is characterized by cellular and organelle swelling resulting from loss of plasma membrane integrity.59 Other morphological changes that accompany subsequent metabolic derangements include: loss of organelle permeability, swelling and dissolution of mitochondria and lysosomes, poorly defined chromatin condensation and formation of plasma blebs. The defects in membrane integrity lead to a release of potentially toxic intracellular contents such as mitochondrial proteins, proteolytic and hydrolytic enzymes into the intercellular space; this incites an inflammatory response. Necrosis typically affects a cluster of cells, unlike apoptosis which occurs in single or scattered cells.

Traditional remedies containing extracts of plant galls in China,

Traditional remedies containing extracts of plant galls in China, India and some African countries have effective in the treatment of various pathologies. To open a new promising procedure for screening bioactive compounds from plant galls, standardized plant materials were generated in vitro and used for phytochemical and biological investigations. Methanol aqueous chloroform

and hexane extracts of Nicotiana tabacum leafy galls induced by Rhodococcus fascians were used to evaluate phenolic and 17-AAG molecular weight flavonoid contents, and to investigate antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant/power assays and anti-inflammatory activity by the lipoxygenase inhibition buy SCH 900776 assay. Infection by R. fascians modifies significantly the phytochemical profile of N. tabacum as well as its biological properties. The total polyphenolic content was increased (120–307%), and that of flavonoids was reduced (20–42.5%).

Consequently, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of non-infected tobacco extracts are significantly modified compared to plants treated with leafy gall extracts. This shows that infection by R. fascians favoured the production of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compounds in N. tabacum. The study indicates the benefit of plant galls used in traditional medicines against various pathologies. “
“Two symptomatic selleck kinase inhibitor tomato plants exhibiting dwarfing, twisting of shoots and leaves, virescence and phyllody of flowers were collected, respectively, from a greenhouse (Soly07fi) or the field (Soly06gh) in the western region of Poland. Direct and nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed using universal phytoplasma primers P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR products showed that the RFLP profiles of both tested phytoplasma isolates are the same

and that they belong to the phytoplasma 16S rRNA I-C subgroup. The homology between the two strains was 99%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the phytoplasma isolates and other phytoplasma sequences available in the GenBank database indicated that the Polish phytoplasma isolates are most closely related to the phytoplasma 16S rRNA I-C subgroup. “
“Tomato leaf curl Hainan virus (ToLCHnV) was previously reported as a distinct begomovirus infecting tomato in Hainan, China. To investigate the infectivity of ToLCHnV, an infectious clone of ToLCHnV-[CN: HaNHK7] was constructed and agro-inoculated into Solanum lycopersicum, Nicotiana benthamiana, Nicotiana glutinosa, Petunia hybrida, Cucumis sativus, Solanum melongena and Capsicum annuum plants; it induced severe leaf curling and crinkling symptoms in these plant species except C. sativus, S. melongena and C. annuum. The induced symptoms were compared with those induced by Papaya leaf curl China virus.

Phycol authors (see Brawley, S H 1999 Submission and retrieva

Phycol. authors (see Brawley, S. H. 1999. Submission and retrieval of an aligned set of nucleic acid sequences. J. Phycol. 35:433–37). The Journal of Phycology requires that all sequences be deposited in public databases, and we strongly recommend that alignments be deposited in public databases when they involve a large number of sequences because this will aid productive future studies by the scientific community. “
“The following article from the Journal of Phycology, “Carotenoids, mycosporine-like amino acid compounds, phycobiliproteins, and click here scytonemin in the genus Scytonema (cyanobacteria): a chemosystematic study,”

submitted by Antonia D. Asencio, and published online on August 22, 2011, on Wiley Online Library (http://www.wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor, Robert Sheath, and Wiley Periodicals Inc. The retraction has been agreed to due to Ferran Garcia-Pichel,

listed as coauthor, not having agreed to the submission or publication of the manuscript. “
“Rhodymenia cf. rhizoides learn more in the low intertidal of Gwaii Haanas; a species with a predominantly disjunct distribution between California and northern British Columbia. [Vol. 50, No. 6, pp. 968–974] “
“Caulerpa chemnitzia Esper growing on reef top at Day Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Photo taken by Gary Cranitch, Queensland Museum. [Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 32–54] “
“Hormosira banksii (Neptune’s necklace) exposed

at low tide at Minnie Waters, NSW, Australia. Photo: J. Clark, University of Technology, Sydney. [Vol. 49, No. 4, pp.630–639] “
“The Aegagropila clade represents a unique group of cladophoralean green algae occurring mainly in brackish and freshwater environments. The clade is sister to the species-rich and primarily marine Cladophora and Siphonocladus lineages. Phylogenetic analyses of partial LSU and SSU nrDNA sequences reveal four main lineages within the Aegagropila clade, and allow a taxonomic reassessment. One lineage consists of two marine ‘Cladophora’ species, for which the new genus Pseudocladophora selleck chemicals and the new family Pseudocladophoraceae are proposed. For the other lineages, the family name Pithophoraceae is reinstated. Within the Pithophoraceae, the earliest diverging lineage includes Wittrockiella and Cladophorella calcicola, occurring mainly in brackish and subaerial habitats. The two other lineages are restricted to freshwater. One of them shows a strong tendency for epizoism, and consists of Basicladia species and Arnoldiella conchophila. The other lineage includes Aegagropila, Pithophora and a small number of tropical ‘Cladophora’ species. The latter are transferred to the new genus Aegagropilopsis.