Paclitaxel-eluting stents and SES were implanted in 36 patients w

Paclitaxel-eluting stents and SES were implanted in 36 patients with 46 lesions, and 32 patients with 40 lesions, respectively. In addition to 1-year major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rates, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), neopterin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)

and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) were also compared before and 9 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The incidence of MACE was significantly lower in the PES group than in the SES group (11.1 vs. 25.0 %, respectively, P = 0.042), mainly due to the reduction of target lesion revascularization in the PES group (6.5 vs. 17.5 %, P = 0.003). The logarithm of hs-CRP as well as IL-6 decreased significantly GSK2879552 order 9 months post-PCI compared with pre-PCI in the PES group (hs-CRP: 3.65 +/- 0.35 vs. 2.91 +/- 0.48, selleck inhibitor P = 0.007; IL-6:

6.73 +/- 3.66 vs. 2.61 +/- 2.29, P = 0.017) but not in the SES group (hs-CRP: 3.33 +/- 0.29 vs. 3.42 +/- 0.27, P not significant; IL-6: 6.08 +/- 4.97 vs. 5.66 +/- 4.29, P not significant). However, neopterin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 remained unchanged both pre-PCI and 9 months post-PCI in both groups. Moreover, MACE were less frequent in patients with decreased hs-CRP levels 9 months post-PCI compared with patients without decreased hs-CRP levels (P = 0.002) in all patients. Paclitaxel-eluting stents appear to be more

effective than SES in reducing MACE rates, especially target lesion revascularization, and may be able to stabilize local inflammatory changes of target lesions specifically in patients on hemodialysis. Thus PES, which inhibit in-stent restenosis and cardiac events in hemodialysis 4SC-202 manufacturer patients, may play an important role in suppression of chronic inflammatory response in target lesions as compared with SES. Chronic continuous inflammation plays an important role after implantation of both types of stent with regard to in-stent restenosis in patients on hemodialysis.”
“Background and Objectives Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a serious transfusion complication resulting in respiratory distress. The study’s objective was to assess TACO occurrence and potential risk factors among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (ages 65 and older) in the inpatient setting during 2011.

Materials and Methods This retrospective claims-based study utilized Medicare administrative databases in coordination with Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Transfusions were identified by recorded procedure and revenue centre codes, while TACO was ascertained via ICD-9-CM diagnosis code. We evaluated TACO diagnosis code rates overall and by age, gender, race, number of units and blood components transfused.

In particular, chronically HCV-infected young IDUs had an increas

In particular, chronically HCV-infected young IDUs had an increased rate of GBV-C clearance.”
“Long bone development depends on endochondral bone formation, a complex process requiring exquisite balance between hypertrophic cartilage (HC) formation and its ossification. Dysregulation of this process may result in skeletal dysplasias and heterotopic ossification. Endochondral ossification requires the precise orchestration of HC vascularization, extracellular matrix remodeling, and the recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoclasts have

all been shown to regulate endochondral ossification, but how their function interrelates is not known. We have investigated JNK inhibitor the functional relationship among these regulators of endochondral ossification, demonstrating that they have complementary selleck chemicals llc but non-overlapping functions. MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast deficiency all cause impaired growth plate ossification resulting in the accumulation of HC. VEGF mRNA and protein expression are increased at the MMP-9-/- growth plate,

and VEGF activity contributes to endochondral ossification since sequestration of VEGF by soluble receptors results in further inhibition of growth plate vascularization and ossification. However, VEGF bioavailability is still limited in MMP-9 deficiency, as exogenous VEGF is able to rescue the MMP-9-/- phenotype, demonstrating that MMP-9 may partially, but not fully, regulate VEGF bioavailability. The organization of the HC extracellular matrix at the MMP-9-/- growth plate is altered, supporting a role for MMP-9 in HC remodeling. Inhibition of VEGF impairs osteoclast recruitment, whereas MMP-9 deficiency leads to an accumulation of osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction. Growth plate ossification in osteoclast-deficient mice is impaired in the presence of normal MMP-9 expression, indicating that other osteoclastic functions are also necessary. Our data delineate the complementary interplay between MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast function that is necessary for normal endochondral bone formation and provide a molecular framework

for investigating the molecular defects contributing to disorders of endochondral bone formation.”
“We performed high throughput screening compounds density-functional calculations to investigate the electronic structure of ZnO/GaN-core/shell heterostructured nanowires (NWs) orientating along < 0001 > direction. The built-in electric field arising from the charge redistribution at the 1 (1) over bar 00 interfaces and the band offsets were revealed. ZnO-core/GaN-shell NWs rather than GaN-core/ZnO-shell ones were predicted to exhibit natural charge spatial separation behaviors, which are understandable in terms of an effective mass model. The effects of quantum confinement on the band gaps and band offsets were also discussed. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.

Data regarding body build, use of medications, concomitant diseas

Data regarding body build, use of medications, concomitant diseases, blood pressure, and smoking habits were collected. Blood tests included fasting glucose, insulin levels, and lipid profile. Patients were classified as having MS based on the definitions of the World Health Organization (WHO-MS), and The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-MS). Risk assessment for the development of CHD was performed using the Framingham risk scoring system.

Results: Patients with DISH had a significantly higher body mass index and waist circumference, while no significant differences were observed for serum total cholesterol, high-density

lipoprotein, selleck kinase inhibitor low-density lipoprotein, or triglyceride serum levels. NCEP-MS and WHO-MS were significantly more prevalent in DISH patients compared with the control group (P = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively). The odds ratio of patients with DISH meeting the NCEP-MS was 3.88 and for WHO-MS was 3.61. The Framingham score for CHD was higher in DISH patients (P = 0.004), conferring a significantly higher 10-year CHD risk (P = 0.007).

Conclusions: Patients with DISH have a significantly higher likelihood to be affected by MS than BMS-345541 concentration non-DISH patients. They also have a significantly higher CHD risk. Patients with DISH should be encouraged to take measures

to reduce cardiovascular disease risks. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 38:361-365″
“Objectives: Literature reports that surveillance imaging following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) gives rise to asymptomatic secondary interventions (SI) in 1.4-9% of cases. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate whether the modality of surveillance imaging influences the detection rate of asymptomatic SI.

Materials and methods: Two EVAR surveillance protocols were compared at the same vascular centre. Protocol I, performed

from January 2003 to December 2006, consisted of colour duplex ultrasound scan (CDU) plus CT angiography (CTA) 1 TGF-beta assay month after procedure and every 6 months thereafter. Protocol II, performed from January 2007 to June 2010, consisted of CDU plus CTA 1 month after operation and CDU plus plain abdominal films (XR) every 6 months thereafter. In the second protocol, CTA was carried out only during follow-up in specific conditions. The term ‘asymptomatic SI’ was used when the necessity for SI was detected by imaging alone on an elective basis, prior to development of any symptoms.

Results: Enrolment included 376 and 341 consecutive patients with a mean follow-up of 1148 days (range 1-3204 days) and 942 days (range1-1512 days) in Protocols land II, respectively (p < 0.001). Freedom rates from aneurysmal rupture, freedom from SI and detection rate for asymptomatic SI at 3 years were 98.3% and 98.7% (p = 0.456), 82% and 83.5%(p = 0.876) and 8.8% (n = 33/376) and 8.5%(n = 25/341) (p = 0.

MethodsAn initial sample of 154 dyads was recruited, and distress

MethodsAn initial sample of 154 dyads was recruited, and distress questionnaires

(Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Symptom Checklist 9-Item Short Version and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey) were assessed over four time points. Linear mixed models and actor-partner interdependence models were applied.

ResultsA significant proportion of patients and their partners (up to 40%) reported high levels of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, and low quality of life over the course of the investigation. Mixed model analyses revealed that higher risks for clinical relevant anxiety and depression in couples exist for female patients and especially for female partners. Tipifarnib mouse Although psychological strain decreased over time, the risk for elevated distress in female partners remained. Modeling patient-partner interdependence over time

stratified by patients’ gender revealed specific effects: a moderate correlation between distress in patients and partners, and a transmission of distress from male patients to their female partners.

ConclusionsOur findings provide empirical support for gender-specific transmission of distress in dyads coping with cancer. This should be considered as an important starting point for planning systemic psycho-oncological interventions and conceptualizing further research. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Placental mesenchymal dysplasia Quizartinib purchase is a rare condition characterized by enlarged multicystic placenta with anechoic regions on ultrasound. Gross examination shows grapelike vesicles which mimics molar pregnancy. Microscopic findings shows large edematous villi with cistern formation interspersed with normal villi. The absence of trophoblastic proliferation and trophobastic inclusions differentiates it from molar pregnancy. We report a new case of placental mesenchymal dysplasia. A 31-year-old G2P1 presented with preterm vaginal bleeding at 24 5/7 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound findings show cystic placenta and placenta previa. She

went into preterm labor and delivered a female baby with no dysmorphic features but later suffered from complications of prematurity. Selleckchem GSK461364 Pathologically, the placenta showed multiple grapelike cystic vesicles with unremarkable chorionic vessels. Microscopically, enlarged edematous villi with cistern formation were noted. Trophoblastic proliferation or inclusions were not seen.”
“Well-defined poly(dimethylsiloxane-b-styrene) diblock copolymers were prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Monohydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane was modified to form a functional polydimethylsiloxane/macro-RAFT agent, which was reacted with styrene to form the diblock copolymers.

Micromagnetic hysteresis simulations enable a rigorous and struct

Micromagnetic hysteresis simulations enable a rigorous and structured investigation of these relations since in the numerical model each material parameter can be altered independently. This paper describes a procedure to extract the Preisach distribution function, quantifying the macroscopic hysteresis properties, from micromagnetic simulations incorporating the materials’ microstructure. Furthermore, the instantaneously added, stored and dissipated energy while running through find more the hysteresis loop

as described in the macroscopic Preisach model and in the micromagnetic hysteresis model are compared, evidencing a very good agreement. Moreover, using the micromagnetic model, the energy

rearrangements between the different micromagnetic interaction terms is studied at each time point of the hysteresis loop. It is concluded that the micromagnetic hysteresis model is a valuable tool in the study of hysteresis properties and loss mechanisms in ferromagnetic materials. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3505779]“
“The melt apparent shear viscosity (eta(a)) of polypropylene (PP) composites filled with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)(3)] and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)(2)] was measured by means of a capillary rheometer under experimental conditions Natural Product Library molecular weight of temperature ranging from 180 to 200 degrees C and apparent shear rate varying from 10 to 2 x 10(3) s(-1), to identify the effects of the filler particle content and size on the melt viscosity. The results showed that the melt shear flow of the composites obeyed the power law and presented pseudoplastic behavior. The dependence of eta(a) on temperature was consistent with the Arrhenius equation. The sensitivity selleck products of eta(a) for the composite melts to temperature was greater than that of

the unfilled PP, and weakened with increasing apparent shear rate. The eta(a) increased linearly with an increase of the weigh fraction of the flame retardant, especially in the low apparent shear rate region. The eta(a) of the composites decreased slightly with an increase of particle size of flame retardant. Moreover, the variation for the eta(a) with particle size of flame retardant was much less than with apparent shear rate under these test conditions. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 119: 1835-1841, 2011″
“Objectives. Human herpesviruses, e. g., herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus, appear in saliva at greater frequency in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than in healthy individuals. However, it is not known if varicella zoster virus (VZV) and HSV-2 appear simultaneously during HIV infection at greater frequency in saliva in this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART).

RESULTS: Concentrated phosphoric acid was the ultimate cellulose

RESULTS: Concentrated phosphoric acid was the ultimate cellulose solvent for dissolution

pretreatment since 5% w/w cellulosic fabric can be completed dissolved at 50 degrees C. After regeneration in water, the cellulosic precipitate was subjected to cellulase hydrolysis, resulting in at least 4-fold enhancement of saccharification rate and reducing sugars yield. The colored saccharification products can be utilized by G. xylinus to produce BC, approximately 1.8 g L(-1) SBE-β-CD ic50 BC pellicle was obtained after 7 days static cultivation.

CONCLUSION: Dyed and blended waste fabric can be pretreated effectively by dissolution to produce fermentable sugars by cellulase hydrolysis. Dissolution pretreatment can expose the dyed or polyester fiber covered digestible cellulosic fibers to cellulase and leads to selleck kinase inhibitor a significant enhancement of saccharification yield. The colored saccharification products have no significant inhibiting effect on the fermentation activity of G. xylinus for BC production. (C) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus (HPV)

antibodies and high-risk cervical HPV DNA in cervical neoplasia.

METHODS: The study population comprised patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=64), CIN 2 and 3 (n=241), cervical cancer (n=170), and normal control participants (n=975). Cervical HPV DNA tests were performed through nucleic GW4869 supplier acid hybridization assay tests, and serum anti-HPV 16 and 18 antibodies were measured by competitive immunoassay. The associations of HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibodies were evaluated with demographic characteristics and compared according to the levels of disease severity. Anti-HPV antibodies were also

investigated with clinicopathologic parameters, including survival data.

RESULTS: Among various demographic characteristics, factors involving sexual behavior had a higher tendency of HPV DNA positivity and HPV seropositivity. Human papillomavirus DNA mean titer and positivity were both increased in patients with cervical neoplasia compared with those with normal control participants, but there was no statistical difference among types of cervical neoplasia. Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies were also able to differentiate cervical neoplasia from a normal control participant and furthermore distinguished CIN 1 from CIN 2 and 3 (odd ratio 2.87 [1.43-5.78], P=.002). In cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity was associated with prolonged disease-free survival according to the univariable analysis (hazard ratio=0.12 [0.01-0.94], P=.044).

CONCLUSION: Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies can distinguish cervical neoplasia from a normal control and has the advantage of identifying high-grade CIN.

Seemingly a logical choice for

use in situations in which

Seemingly a logical choice for

use in situations in which continuous abstinence is required, it mostly has been employed in Europe with forensic populations such as alcoholics seeking drivers license reinstatement. Only two studies have been conducted in transplant patients. In both, hair testing detected more active users than other modalities.


Use of conventional biomarkers results in variable rates of drug detection, raising questions about fairness of the selection process. Hair analysis significantly increases detection rates. Programs adopting hair analysis should be prepared for more patients to be disqualified during the 6-month waiting period, but those testing negative at baseline could, theoretically, proceed with transplantation buy VX-680 sooner. Selection of more optimal candidates also could improve outcomes.”
“We experienced a case of uterine wall defect with amniocele in a primigravida woman without any history of uterine surgery. On admission due to acute abdominal pain at 32 weeks’ gestation, an ultrasound examination showed a 9×7-cm sized echogenic cystic area in the Morrison pouch. Color Doppler revealed a flow from the uterus into the cystic area through a myometrial defect. During the operation, a 1-cm defect in the uterine myometrium was found on the right fundus. An intact amniotic sac was prolapsed

into the abdominal cavity through the myometrial defect. This was an extremely rare case of unexplained uterine wall defect.”
“Purpose of review

Given Citarinostat supplier that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in transplant candidates and recipients is substantially higher than in the general population, and that linkages between psychiatric disorders and medical outcomes for nontransplant-related diseases have been established, it is important to determine whether psychiatric disorders predict posttransplant medical outcomes.

Recent findings

Most research has focused on the association between depression

( both pretransplant and posttransplant) and posttransplant mortality. Some research has examined transplant-related morbidity HIF inhibitor outcomes, such as graft rejection, posttransplant malignancies, and infection. However, methodological limitations make it difficult to compare existing studies in this literature directly. Overall, the studies presented in this review indicate that psychiatric distress occurring in the early transplant aftermath bears a stronger relationship to morbidity and mortality outcomes than psychiatric distress occurring before transplant.


The literature on the impact of psychiatric conditions on the morbidity and mortality of solid organ transplant recipients remains inconclusive. More research is needed in order to investigate these associations among a broader range of psychiatric predictors, morbidity outcomes, and recipient populations.

Results-Radiographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement

Results-Radiographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to both number and location of fragments in 21 of the 48 (44%) joints. Ultrasonographic and arthroscopic findings were in agreement with respect to number and location of fragments

for 46 of the 48 (96%) joints. In the remaining 2 joints, arthroscopy revealed additional fragments that were not identified ultrasonographically. When ultrasonographic Staurosporine findings were compared with radiographic findings, more fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 3 joints and fewer fragments were seen ultrasonographically in 1 joint. Ultrasonographic findings also confirmed the absence (4 joints) or presence (3 joints) of fragmentation at the dorsoproximal aspect of the joint that had been suspected on the basis of radiographic findings. Ultrasonography was also able to determine the location of the fragments in the joints where this was

not possible radiographically.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results of the present study suggested that ultrasonography was a useful method for determining the number and location of fragments in horses with dorsal fragmentation of the Selleckchem ERK inhibitor MCP or MTP joint. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;235:70-75)”
“Objective: To compare the effectiveness and safety of a combination of rituximab (RTX) with either methotrexate (MTX) or leflunomide (LEF) in the treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inadequate response to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents or traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in a real-world setting.

Methods: Data from 77 consecutive unselected patients with active RA and treated with at least 1 cycle of RTX (1 g x 2 weeks) plus MTX or LEE were retrospectively collected. A comparative study between the 2 combinations of treatment (RTX+MTX and RTX+LEF) was performed at 6 months of follow-up considering 3 outcomes: the improvement of RA disease activity, the evolution of functional disability, and the tolerability and side effect profile.

Results: Of the 77 patients, 45 received RTX+MTX and 32 RTX+LEF. At baseline there were no significant differences

between the groups in terms of the main clinical and laboratory data, or in the number of previous DMARD and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents used. At 6 months of follow-up, we did GSK2126458 not find significant differences between the 2 combinations in the evolution of RA disease activity (DAS28 response, according to the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) improvement criteria) and functional disability progression (health assessment questionnaire) over time. Minor adverse events occurred in 9% of RTX+MTX patients and in 9% of RTX+LEF patients. None of the patients had serious adverse events and none discontinued the treatment during the study period.

Conclusions: Our preliminary data support the view that LEF is a useful alternative if MTX is contraindicated, since its effectiveness and safety seem similar. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Averaged over both years, total oil yields for the camelina-soybe

Averaged over both years, total oil yields for the camelina-soybean and camelina-sunflower sequences were 704 and 1508 L ha(-1). Compared to conventionally produced mono-crops, on average, double-crop soybean and sunflower yielded 82% and 72% of their mono-cropped counterparts, respectively. As expected, double-crop production Sotrastaurin costs were greater than for conventional mono-crops. However, in 2009 if camelina prices were similar to canola, net returns for double-crop camelina and soybean were $172-352 ha(-1) higher than for soybean alone, with highest double-crop net returns for conventional tillage. Furthermore, double-crop soybean seed protein content was little affected

by late seeding, while double-crop sunflower oil content averaged over both years SHP099 purchase was about 13% lower than conventional sunflower sown at an optimum time. A winter camelina-food or -forage crop double-cropping system may be viable for the upper Midwest USA. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Study design: Mixed methods study design.

Objectives: The Work Rehabilitation Questionnaire-Self-Report Version (WORQ-SELF)

is an assessment tool based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed to evaluate functioning in different patient populations in vocational rehabilitation (VR) settings. The objective of this study is to establish the content validity

of WORQ-SELF in a subgroup of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients in the early post-acute context.

Setting: Swiss Paraplegic Research and Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland.

Methods: Contents of WORQ-SELF were compared with semi-guided interviews with SCI patients in Switzerland, the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for SCI early post-acute, and outcome instruments used in VR and SCI. A frequency analysis was performed.

Results: WORQ-SELF represented 46 different ICF categories and of these 37 categories were confirmed by the patient interviews. The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for SCI confirmed 25 categories. Four instruments used in VR and IPI-145 supplier SCI setting were identified. Contents of those instruments confirmed 14 categories of WORQ-SELF. Overall, 26 categories of the WORQ-SELF were confirmed by at least 2 of the 3 sources, 13 categories by 1 source and 7 were not confirmed by any of the sources.

Conclusion: The WORQ-SELF proved to have content validity for utility in patients with SCI within the context of VR. WORQ-SELF can be used to assess the functioning and disability of patients in the return to work process.”
“OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors.

Genes associated with cell differentiation,

such as Gadd4

Genes associated with cell differentiation,

such as Gadd45b, were upregulated and prompted us to determine the expression of the Il-24 (Mda-7) gene using real-time PCR. There was an increase in the Mda-7 mRNA expression PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition in B16 and HMV-II melanoma cells, and in human melanocytes. To better visualize the cell morphology, F-actin staining was performed and the results showed an increase in the dendrite outgrowth in HA-treated cells. Silencing the Mc1r gene did not cause a change in the 816 cell morphology observed in cells treated with HA.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HA downregulates Mitf gene expression by regulating the expressions of the MAPK signaling pathway intermediates. In addition, the inhibited Mc1r gene expression also contributed to the overall Mitf downregulation but does not play a role in the observed change in B16 cell morphology. HA surprisingly can regulate genes associated with differentiating cells (Mda-7) suggesting a role for HA in the melanoma cell differentiation induction. While the exact molecular mechanism by which HA promotes cell differentiation remain to be determined, it is clear that HA can downregulate Mitf expression and promote cell differentiation and has the potential to be used in the development of therapy for melanoma. (C) 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cellular electrophysiology

experiments, important for understanding cardiac arrhythmia mechanisms, are usually performed with channels expressed in non myocytes, or with non-human myocytes. Differences between BKM120 chemical structure cell types and species affect results.

Thus, an accurate model for the undiseased human ventricular action potential (AP) which reproduces a broad range of physiological behaviors is needed. Such a model requires extensive experimental data, but essential elements have been unavailable. HM781-36B in vivo Here, we develop a human ventricular AP model using new undiseased human ventricular data: Ca2+ versus voltage dependent inactivation of L-type Ca2+ current (I-CaL); kinetics for the transient outward, rapid delayed rectifier (I-Kr), Na+/Ca2+ exchange (I-NaCa), and inward rectifier currents; AP recordings at all physiological cycle lengths; and rate dependence and restitution of AP duration (APD) with and without a variety of specific channel blockers. Simulated APs reproduced the experimental AP morphology, APD rate dependence, and restitution. Using undiseased human mRNA and protein data, models for different transmural cell types were developed. Experiments for rate dependence of Ca2+ (including peak and decay) and intracellular sodium ([Na+](i)) in undiseased human myocytes were quantitatively reproduced by the model. Early afterdepolarizations were induced by I-Kr block during slow pacing, and AP and Ca2+ alternans appeared at rates >200 bpm, as observed in the nonfailing human ventricle.