The HOMA index was calculated after the dosage of insulin Adipon

The HOMA index was calculated after the dosage of insulin. Adiponectin level All biological samples were harvested in the morning before breakfast, and the serum was immediately separated by centrifugation and stored at -80°C until dosage was completed. This process was completed with recombinant human adiponectin by standard (Human Adiponectin RIA Linco Research® 6 research Park Dr St Charles, Missouri 63304 USA) using the instructions of manufacturer. Statistical analysis Statistical analysis was since performed by Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using SPSS software (version 11, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Quantitative variables were expressed as median and range,

or as mean ± standard selleckchem deviation when normally distributed. Parametric student’s test or non parametric Mann-Whitney’s test when appropriate were used to compare quantitative variables between the 2 groups. The relationship Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between the type of cancer and the other variables, especially the presence of diabetes and the rate of adiponectin was analyzed using χ2 test. A p value less than 0.05 was considered to indicate a significant difference. The threshold of adiponectin level was investigated by analysis of ROC curves and measuring the areas under the curves for a better sensitivity and specificity. For multivariate analysis, we used binary logistic regression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to find the independent factors significantly associated with

adiponectin level (low or high comated with a threshold level of ADP) and diabetes with pancreatic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cancer. The variables were analyzed in the multivariate model for a risk α < 10%. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Characteristics of patients Between January 2006

and September 2007, 53 consecutive patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 30 with colorectal adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Mean age for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the two groups was 69 years (range, 11.9 years). The mean HOMA index was 2.54 and the mean adiponectin level was 18.7 µg/L (range 2.9-74.5). The main demographic and clinical characteristics of all included patients are presented in Table 1. Table 2 shows the factors associated with the type of cancer. The two groups (pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer) Carfilzomib were comparable for age, sex, BMI, the rate of cholestérol and tumour staging. Table 1 Characteristics of patients Table 2 Factors associated with the type of cancer, pancreatic vs colo-rectal (univariate analysis) In the pancreatic group there was however an increased incidence of hypertriglyceridemia (35.8% vs 9.1%, p = 0.05). Pancreatic cancer was associated with severe weight loss (BMI < 20) in 1/3 of the cases against 1/10 in the second group. At the moment of diagnosis, diabetes was two times more frequent in the group of patients with pancreatic cancer compared to patients presenting with colorectal cancer (39.6% vs 18.2%, p = 0.037).

Nevertheless, this is the first study to explore the relation of

Nevertheless, this is the first study to explore the relation of TGFB1 and its receptors mRNA in colorectal cancer using RT-PCR. Moreover, the large cohort of patients in this study gives it further advantage compared to the other studies. Other genes shown to be potential biomarkers in this study included CDH17, FABP1, IL8, MUC2 and PDCD4. In colorectal cancer, CDH17 expression was only investigated at protein level using IHC and immunoblotting. Hinoi et al. examined the

protein expression in human colorectal cancer cell lines. In their study, CDH17 was not detected Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in cell lines showing dedifferentiated phenotypes (43). This was further confirmed by Takamura et al. who examined the CDH17 expression Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in four cell lines and 45 human primary colorectal carcinoma using monoclonal antibodies. In cell lines the protein was expressed in differentiated but not the dedifferentiated phenotypes while in tissues reduced CDH17 expression was associated with high Rapamycin FDA tumour grade, advanced stage and lymphatic invasion and metastasis (44). Moreover, Kwak et al. found reduced expression in 51% of the 207 colorectal cancers he studied using immunohistochemistry and he

significantly correlated down-expression of CDH17 with poor survival and lymph nodes metastasis (45). To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate CDH17 mRNA in colorectal cancer using RQ-PCR. Our findings Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical support the above reports and confirm that down-regulation of CDH17 in colorectal cancer is associated with poor differentiation, raised CA19.9 tumour marker serum level and local tumour invasion indicated by increase bowel wall involvement. Interestingly, CDH17 expression correlated with increased tumour diameter and tumour thickness (indices of intraluminal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical tumour growth)

and decreased with increased bowel wall involvement (index Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of local tumour invasion). Those findings could be explained by the adhesion function of the protein. Generally, for the tumour to grow in diameter and thickness it needs to retain adhesion molecules expression, while loss or inactivation of those adhesion molecules correlate with inhibition of cell aggregation and promotion of tumour invasiveness. This finding may highlight the potential role of CDH17 as a marker for rectal cancer surgical management planning. In other wards, decrease level of CDH17 may indicate GSK-3 local invasion of tumour and therefore total BMS-907351 mesorectal excision (TME) will be indicated. Evidence of dysregulated FABP1 gene expression has been reported in colorectal gene expression array datasets (5,46), however, little is known of its expression profile with regard to clinical data. Lawrie et al. identified consistent loss of FABP1 in tumour compared to normal colon and also noted the association of decreased protein expression and poorly differentiated tumours and large adenomas (47).

3% of the 605 men who underwent RP and 15% of the patients had a

3% of the 605 men who underwent RP and 15% of the patients had a locally advanced tumor. Specimens of 26% of patients showed a nonsignificant PCa on pathologic examination. Challacombe and coworkers23 investigated the peri-operative morbidity, functional,

and oncological outcome of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) in 65 patients over age 70 years (mean age, 71.9 years). When Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical compared with a younger group (mean age, 60.2 years), results were comparable and the authors concluded that RARP is a safe and effective treatment with good results in men over age 70 years. The formation of scar tissue at the vesico-urethral anastomotic site leading to anastomotic stricture is a potential complication

after RP. Hruza and coworkers24 presented their results on the incidence of anastomotic strictures in 2200 consecutive patients treated with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical (LRP). A total of 4.6% of the patients developed anastomotic stricture, almost all of them occurring within the first 3 years after surgery. Seven parameters were reported in this study to be risk factors of anastomotic stricture formation, namely, prolonged catheter time for anastomotic insufficiency (P < .001), intermittent suture for urethrovesical anastomosis (P = .001), surgeon (P = .029), operative time > 4 hours (P = .016), transperitoneal access (P = .041), nonnerve-sparing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical surgery (P = .014), and high body mass Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical index (BMI) (P = .035). The overall anastomotic stricture rate after LRP was low, and a low BMI was the only patient-related parameter with a positive impact on anastomotic stricture rates. Metastatic Disease Androgen deprivation therapy remains a hot topic in the management of advanced PCa. In the Scandinavian

Prostate Cancer Group (SPCG)-5 study25 patients with newly diagnosed PCa were randomized to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receive either total androgen blockade (TAB) or polyestradiol phosphate (PEP). No difference could be observed between the treatment groups in terms of biochemical (TAB 10.1 months vs PEP 10.2 months, P = .58) or clinical progression-free survival, or in overall (hazard ratio [HR] 0.96, confidence interval [CI], 0.82–1.12) or disease-specific survival (HR 0.9, CI, 0.77–1.08). In Barcelona, Brasso and colleagues26 presented an analysis of a subgroup of 131 patients, originally included Brefeldin_A into the SPCG-5 study, to evaluate the selleck prognostic impact of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with metastatic PCa. They were able to AZD9291 confirm that all 3 forms of uPAR measured in pretreatment serum samples held prognostic information. Highest uPAR levels were associated with shortest survival. In a multivariate analysis uPAR was shown to be an independent prognostic factor with regard to survival. Interestingly, a qualitative interaction between levels of uPAR and treatment modality with regard to survival could be observed.

Our results also confirm the previous finding that verbal materia

Our results also Oligomycin A Sigma confirm the previous finding that verbal material that is self-generated is more

accurately remembered than material that is passively read whether it is in health or disease states (Slamecka and Graf 1978; Schefft et al. 2008b). However, in the specific case of paired associates, this self-generation effect differed depending on the linguistic relationship between the word pair. Generated words were significantly Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical better remembered than read words in the synonym and opposite relationships, and somewhat in the category and association relationships while no recognition difference existed between read and generated words in the rhyme condition. Together, this provides support for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical our hypothesis that the choice of linguistic relationship has implications for memory. As discussed above, several theories were proposed to explain the memory improvement associated

with self-generation. This pattern can be attributed to the active participation that the individual is Idelalisib PI3K taking in achieving a task (Schefft et al. 2008b). The active learning process leads to improved Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mood state and self-esteem, and greater generalization of new knowledge (Schefft and Biederman 1990; Basso et al. 1994; Walsh et al. 1995). McDaniel et al. (1988) posited that self-generation improves memory because there is a heightened particularity in the items that need to be remembered. Another theory hypothesized that memory of information is enhanced when people feel self-empowered by generating that information on their own (Olofsson and Nilsson 1992;

Walsh et al. 1995). In addition, generating a word with deleted letters presents an interruption of automatic reading Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical processes, requiring an additional amount of conscious processing (McDaniel et al. 1989) leading to better recall. Furthermore, it has also been suggested that increased memory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by way of self-generation is attributed to the depth of processing of the semantic information, rather than structural or phonological information (Craik and Tulving 1975; Craik 2002; Lespinet-Najib et al. 2004). The different effects found on recognition memory for each linguistic relationship support Entinostat the notion that deeper semantic processing enhances memory performance (Craik and Tulving 1975; Craik 2002; Lespinet-Najib et al. 2004); and semantic and phonological relationships among words are processed by separate memory mechanisms (Martin et al. 1999), or at least require different cognitive resources (Menenti et al. 2012). Rhyming word pairs employs phonetic knowledge to self-generate a missing word according to how the words sound, while generating other types of related word pairs, such as categories, synonyms, opposites, and associations, employs semantic knowledge of what the word actually means (Craik and Tulving 1975; Martin et al. 1999; Kircher et al. 2011).

5, and less likely to have the variant genotype; the converse was

5, and less likely to have the variant genotype; the converse was the found in patients with schizophrenia. First-degree relatives were not included in this analysis. Raux71 and colleagues studied two related α7

genes (CHRNA7 and CHRNA7-like gene) resulting from a partial duplication (from exon 5 to exon 10) in the human genome. They described two types of genetic variation (i) a large deletion resulting in a truncation of the open reading frame; and (ii) a -2 bp deletion in exon 6, which specifically affected the CHRNA7-like gene. Genotyping 70 schizophrenic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical patients and 77 controls who had had P50 ERP recorded, Raux and colleagues found that carrying at least one -2 bp deletion of exon 6 did not constitute a risk factor for schizophrenia; on the contrary, healthy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical control subjects were more likely to have

the -2 bp deletion of exon 6 associated with P50 ratio >0.45. The selleck Regorafenib authors of this study concluded that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the -2 bp deletion within the CHRNA7-like gene is a risk factor for P50 sensory gating deficit, but not for schizophrenia. In a subsequent study,72 the same group was unable to replicate the CHNRA7 core promoter variant findings described by Leonard et al,70 but found a -194C CHNRA7 promoter polymorphism that was also associated with a P50 ratio <0.50 as in the Leonard et al study, except that this allele was also more frequent in the control group. The authors suggested that this was a case where the variant allele rendered a protective effect against the P50 ratio deficit, and the -194C polymorphism was

in linkage disequilibrium with causal variants of Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the deficit. Although the evidence to support a functional association of CHRNA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 7 promoter variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia is weak, it may still be the case that CHRNA 7 modulates inhibitory factors in the P50 ERP and, in similar fashion perhaps, modulation of clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. P300 oddball ERPs The P300 oddball ERP is a cognitive electrophysiological paradigm elicited within a 250- to 450-ms poststimulus window when a subject detects a low probability target stimulus. The maximum amplitude of the P300 response is recorded from temporoparietal scalp leads. Brefeldin_A A number of laboratories5,73-79 including ours,5,77 have found the P300 left temporoparietal component amplitude distinguishes patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. However, whether P300 oddball amplitude is a plausible following website intermediate phenotype in schizophrenia remains undetermined. The crux is the question of heritability; the issue is whether siblings share a putative phenotype; and for this the evidence is decidedly mixed.

Nevertheless, they do not normalize the ability to learn and appl

Nevertheless, they do not normalize the ability to learn and apply knowledge (Advokat 2010). In fact, it has been recognized over 30 years that there is little evidence that prescription stimulants such as MPH and AMP improve the academic achievement of ADHD-diagnosed children. Children with ADHD have a consistently lower full-scale IQ than normal controls. They score significantly lower on reading and arithmetic tests, use more remedial academic services, and are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more likely to be placed in a selleck inhibitor special education class, or repeat a grade compared with controls. They also take more years to complete high school and have lower rates of college attendance

(Advokat 2010). Thus, prescription stimulants have only a modest impact on these outcomes. The first review to describe the general academic functioning of adults with ADHD Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical summarized the results from 23 studies (Weyandt and DuPaul 2006). ADHD-diagnosed

college students were found to have significantly lower grade point averages, report more “academic problems” and to be less likely to graduate from college. Nevertheless, ADHD-diagnosed college students did not differ in IQ from those without Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ADHD, and were shown to be able to meet the demands of college courses. On psychological tests, they showed significant deficits in attention, but were not different from normal students on other measures, such as the ability to be flexible and to maintain performance, as task demands varied (Weyandt and DuPaul 2006). More recent reports have reached similar conclusions. Interestingly, like elementary and high school students, college students with ADHD are less likely to reach the same academic level as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical their non-ADHD counterparts, even when they use stimulant medications. Thus, stimulant medications do not necessarily equalize academic achievement in the typical adult with ADHD. A recent controlled, cross-sectional study evaluated the effects of stimulants on cognition in adults with ADHD and found that treated ADHD

subjects had significantly better scores on measures of IQ than did untreated patients (Biederman et al. 2012). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Thus, either good cognitive functioning may be a determinant of seeking treatment or stimulant treatment may improve cognition in adults with ADHD. When ADHD studies address the issue of cognition, they usually demonstrate that treated patients perform better than untreated patients on neuropsychological tests or measures after they Cilengitide are treated. Whether treatment normalizes neurocognitive performance is rarely addressed. In fact, adults with ADHD are less likely to attain the same educational levels as those without the diagnosis relative to what would be predicted based on their IQ, and this outcome does not appear to be improved by stimulant medication. In one recent study, for selleck products example, although 84% of ADHD-diagnosed adults were statistically expected to be college graduates, only 50% reached this level of education (Biederman et al. 2008a,b).

A positive slope for this equation indicated a trend

of h

A positive slope for this equation kinase inhibitor Crenolanib indicated a trend

of higher asymmetry scores over the course the sessions, or greater dominance of T4 over T3, whereas a negative slope indicated a trend of lower asymmetry scores, or diminishing dominance of T4 over T3. A plot of individual change of asymmetry scores against individual change in insomnia as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index (Bastien et al. 2001) is shown in Figure 5. There was a trend for reduction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of temporal lobe high-frequency EEG asymmetry in the direction of less dominance of T4 over T3 to correlate with greater reduction of insomnia symptoms. Figure 4 Tukey plot of average asymmetry scores Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between T3 and T4 in the 23–36 Hz range, over the course of eight successive HIRREM exercises for 19 subjects enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating efficacy of HIRREM as an intervention for insomnia. Whiskers … Figure 5 Correlation between individual change in asymmetry between T3 and T4 in 23–36 Hz range over eight serial HIRREM exercises, and change in insomnia symptoms as measured by change in ISI score. More negative change in asymmetry scores indicates lesser … Safety

and side effects HIRREM Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has been found to be a safe procedure. Based on experience with provision of case management support (by Brain State Technologies), feedback from clients and the HIRREM provider community, and three Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical IRB-approved studies based at a tertiary medical center, the developers and researchers are not aware of any serious adverse events resulting from undergoing HIRREM. On an anecdotal basis, individuals undergoing HIRREM may report an apparent

“release of emotions” or paradoxical effects especially initially, which can manifest as brief periods of increased awareness of emotional states, both positive and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical negative. These experiences are typically transient, that is, lasting intermittently over the course of one to several days. In the course of provision of HIRREM to 118 subjects participating in three university-based IRB-approved studies, subthreshold changes in emotional symptomatology GSK-3 (not requiring additional clinical intervention or necessitating discontinuation of sessions) were estimated by the principal investigator to occur in approximately 5–10% of subjects. All HIRREM inhibitor bulk sessions are administered by technologists who have been certified in the procedure, including guidelines for addressing emotional releases that may occur. If emotional releases are prolonged or intense, individuals are advised to see a mental health professional for additional evaluation or treatment.

7%) were females, 832 (66 0%) of which were primary school teache

7%) were females, 832 (66.0%) of which were primary school teachers with mean age of 39.34±9.02 years and working experience of 13.36±8.82 years. The results of this study show that 3.2% of school teachers in Botswana reported that they were current smokers, while 5.3% were ex-smokers Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and

91.5% have never smoked. The results of the current study, as indicated in Table 1, reveal that gender was significantly associated with smoking among school teachers. The prevalence of smoking among female teachers (0.4%) was substantial lower than of their male counterpart (10.8%), p<0.001. Marital status was significantly associated with tobacco smoking (p=0.001). School level has also been positively associated with tobacco smoking among teachers. Majority of smokers were 30 years or less. Age and length of employment were

not significantly associated with tobacco smoking. Table 1 Prevalence of tobacco smoking among teachers in Botswana Discussion About 3.2% of teachers in this study reported that they were smokers. This prevalence is relatively lower compared to results of other studies that have been carried out around the world. Supporting this are the results of studies from Kingdom of Bahrain and Kenya in which prevalence of smoking among Bahraini and Kenyan teachers were 7% for each [13,14]. As shown on Table 2, quite similar findings were found in studies conducted among Malay and Yemen teachers where 7.8% and 8% prevalence were reported, respectively [9]. Similarly high prevalence of tobacco smoking has been reported among school teachers around the world. A study of school teachers in India, for example, found that 14.5% of primary school teachers where smokers [15] while in Bangladesh prevalence of tobacco smoking among secondary school teachers was 17% [16] and 17.8% in Sousse, Tunisia [17]. Furthermore, another study of Malay secondary school teachers in Kelantan found that 20% are smokers [18]. A much higher

prevalence was reported in a study from Tunisian Sahel which found that 29.3% of school teachers smoked [19] and 29.7% of primary and secondary Spanish teachers were smokers [20]. The highest smoking prevalence (58.1%) has been reported by Turkish primary teachers. In the same study, 36.1% teachers reported that they were ex-smokers whilst 5.8% had never smoked [21]. A similar smoking prevalence (52.1%) was reported among Syrian male primary and secondary school teachers [22], whilst in Malaysia, 40.6% secondary school teachers were smokers [23]. Drug_discovery Table 2 Prevalence of smoking among school teachers reported from international studies The low smoking prevalence among Botswana teachers can be, perhaps, attributed to a general non acceptance of smoking in the country, generally. The prevalence of any tobacco smoking and cigarette smoking in Botswana as of 2011 was 17% and 13% respectively [24]. Low prevalence of smoking in Botswana could also be attributed to tobacco control measures that have been put in place in the country.

Progress in our understanding of neural plasticity has profound i

Progress in our understanding of neural plasticity has profound implications

for the treatment of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and for enhancing performance in what are considered normal subjects. One of the promising aspects of neural plasticity is that it implies that the alterations that occur are reversible, even neuronal atrophy and cell loss. Reversibility of structural as well as functional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plasticity has already been demonstrated in response to pharmacological treatments or even behavioral therapy. As the fundamental mechanisms of neural plasticity are further elucidated, new Calcitriol targets and paradigms for enhancing plasticity will be revealed and will lead to more effective and faster-acting therapeutic interventions. Selected abbrewiations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and acronyms BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate CaRE cAMP response element CREB cAMP response element binding protein FGF-2 fibroblast growth factor-2 5-HT 5 -hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LTP long-term potentiation NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate PDE4 phosphodiesterase

type IV PKA protein kinase SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Notes This work is supported by USPHS grants MH45481 and 2 P01 MH25642, a Veterans Administration National Center Grant for posttraumatic stress disorder, and by the Connecticut Mental Health Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Center.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most, exciting imaging technologies for texture analysis: it offers the best soft, tissue contrast, which can be dramatically varied during imaging. Careful study of the

dependence of texture parameters on MRI data collection strategy is essential for texture analysis in order to avoid artificial texture from the scanner. This is critical, since different centers may vary their measuring sequences and acquisition protocols for their clinical investigations. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The basic problem in quantitative MRI texture analysis is the large number of different measuring techniques and imaging parameters, which can be easily changed during a clinical examination. Thus, different techniques and imaging parameters produce totally different patterns in the texture parameters of the same tissues in clinical examinations Drug_discovery with different sensitivity to artificial texture overlaid by the scanner. The main problem in texture analysis with MRI is to avoid this artificial texture and minimize its influence. The presented work was performed in the framework of a European research project COST (Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) Bll between 1998 and 2002 by institutions from 13 European countries, aimed at the development of quantitative methods for MRI texture analysis.1 For further detail of texture analysis, parameters, and software, see the article by Materka in this volume2 or references 3 to 7.

Apart from the conventional design strategy, a unique modular str

Apart from the conventional design strategy, a unique modular strategy for tailoring fluorescence selleckbio biosensors by a simple combination of a receptor and a signal transducer has recently been proposed in the field of signaling aptamers [16,17]. We will discuss the advantage of the strategy and will refer to the perspective of fluorescent biosensors based on macromolecular receptors.2.?Auto-Fluorescent Protein (AFP) Based BiosensorsAuto-fluorescent proteins (AFPs) such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish [18] are well-established and versatile reporter proteins for monitoring gene expression profiles [19] and protein localizations [20] in a variety of systems. It is noteworthy that AFPs exhibit spontaneous fluorescence emission in cells by the autocatalytic formation of the chromophore after translation [21,22].

Therefore, AFPs can be endogenously expressed in cells or tissues just by transfection of the plasmid DNA without interfering with their fluorescence properties and damaging the cells. In addition to the application of AFPs as a reporter tag, various kinds of AFP-based biosensors have recently been developed by fusion of receptor proteins or mutation of AFPs. There are practically two strategies for the construction of AFP-based biosensors; (a) analyte-sensitive sensors and, (b) conformation-sensitive sensors [23].The design of analyte-sensitive sensors was based on AFP variants, whose fluorescent properties were directly affected by the interaction between a target molecule and a chromophore moiety in AFP.

Initially, pH and halide-sensitive AFP variants have been developed exploiting the intrinsic pH sensitivity of GFP mutants [24�C26] and the high pKas of YFP mutants [27�C29]. Mutations in close proximity to the GFP chromophore or the barrel structure of BFP lead to the specific biosensor for Hg2+ [30] or Zn2+ [31], respectively. In this type of sensor, the receptor function was directly integrated into the chromophore itself by the alteration of the chemical nature around the chromophore.The conformation-sensitive sensors are designed so that the conformational change of the receptor associated with the ligand-binding event transduces to a significant fluorescence response of AFPs. This design strategy is more versatile than that for the analyte-sensitive sensor, because this type of sensor could be applied to a variety of native receptor proteins. Actually, biosensors for Ca2+ [32�C43] as well as for small organic molecules such as ATP [44], cAMP [45�C48], cGMP [49�C51], tryptophan [52], glutamate [53,54], and inositol phosphates [55,56] have been reported based on this strategy.