Few analytical methods have been reported for the verification of

Few analytical methods have been reported for the verification of steroidal hormone drugs, especially for those with similar buy JQ1 chemical properties. In this paper, our aim was to develop a set of simple High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detection12, 13, 14 and 15 (ELSD) and with dual

ESI ionization mass spectrometry (LCMS) methods are presented to distinguish and qualitatively analyze used to identify of Dexamethasone, Testosterone and Estrone (E1) in the combination form. Pure standards of Dexamethasone, Testosterone and Estrone (E1) were obtained from the Sigma–Aldrich, India. Organic solvents for chromatography were purchased in LCMS grade, ACS grade Acetonitrile was purchased from Honeywell-Burdick & Jackson (USA), water was obtained from ultra-purified from Elix Advantage 5 system equipped with Milli-Q Biocel (Millipore), all the chemicals used were of analytical reagent grade, and the solvents were of ACS. The purity of each reference standard was determined by HPLC PDA, ELSD detectors and dual ESI (LCMS). All solvents and samples were filtered through MILLEX FG (Millipore),

13 mm, 0.2 μM, fluoropore, non-sterile membrane sample filter paper before injecting into system. The analyses were performed using an Agilent 1200 Series HPLC system, equipped with a binary pump, an auto-sampler, a column oven, PDA detector and selleckchem a mass hunter software version B.02.01 (B2116.20) Dipeptidyl peptidase (Agilent Technologies, USA). Agilent 1260 Infinity Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (ELSD) instrument, operated by the Agilent 35900E multichannel interface which converts analog signal to digital (A/D) (Agilent Technologies, USA), was connected to the liquid chromatography for detection of steroids. The separation was carried out on a reverse phase Shodex C18, 3 μm, 4.6 × 100 mm at ambient temperature. The isocratic elution mode with a mobile phases

Acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water and eluted by the following program at the flow 1 mL/min, runtime 6 min. The drift tube temperature for ELSD was set at 50 °C and the nitrogen flow rate was 53 psi. Agilent 6520 Quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer. Coupled to an Agilent 1200 series HPLC system (Agilent Technologies, USA) is equipped with binary pump, auto sampler, thermostatted column compartment, variable wavelength detector, auto sampler thermostatted (G 1330B). The Agilent Q-TOF (6520) mass spectrometer is equipped with dual electrospray ionization (ESI) ion source, and the HPLC conditions were identical to those used for HPLC–ELSD analyses mentioned above. Mass spectra were acquired in positive mode with scan range from m/z 100 to 500 Da. The conditions of dual ESI source were as followed: drying gas (N2) flow rate, 30.

, 2001) Intra-LC administration of a CRF antagonist during the s

, 2001). Intra-LC administration of a CRF antagonist during the stress prevented the stress-induced excitation and revealed a greater post-stress inhibition that is naloxone-sensitive (Valentino and Wehby, 1988a and Curtis et al., AZD6738 mouse 2001). Additionally, LC administration of naloxone alone increased the time taken for LC excitation

to recover to pre-stress levels. This study suggested that opioid inhibition was important in recovery of LC activity from this physiological stressor. Together these findings support a model whereby acute stressors engage both CRF and opioid inputs to the LC (Fig. 2A). CRF is the predominant afferent and shifts LC discharge to a high tonic mode that favors

increased arousal, scanning attention and behavioral flexibility, effects that would be adaptive coping responses to an acute threat. At the same time endogenous opioid afferents that have opposing actions are engaged. These function to restrain the CRF excitation and to promote recovery after stressor termination. These CRF/opioid interactions adjust the activity and reactivity of LC neurons so that level of arousal IPI-145 order and processing of sensory stimuli are optimized to facilitate adaptive behavioral responses to stressors. The protective effects of opioids are apparent in the many studies documenting that morphine administration shortly after a single traumatic event reduces the incidence of PTSD (Bryant et al., 2009 and Holbrook et al., 2010). During acute stress MOR regulation of the LC serves as an adaptive counterbalance that curbs the excitatory effects of CRF and protects against the consequences of a hyperactive

brain norepinephrine system. However, tipping the balance in favor of a MOR influence incurs alternative costs (Fig. 2B). Like the CRF response to stress, the opposing opioid response must be limited. The persistence of an opioid influence can produce enduring modifications in neural circuits that result in opioid tolerance and dependence. Indeed, this may be an underlying basis for the association between stress and substance abuse. A bias toward opioid regulation of the LC was recently demonstrated to occur with repeated Megestrol Acetate social stress, which diminishes CRF function and enhances MOR function in the LC (Chaijale et al., 2013). Unlike acute stressors, repeated social stress decreased LC neuronal discharge rate by 48 h after the last stress and this inhibition was naloxone-sensitive indicating that MOR receptors were occupied. Analysis of CRF1 and MOR protein levels and receptor trafficking in the LC demonstrated that this paradoxical stress-induced inhibition is due to both a loss of CRF-elicited excitation as a result of CRF1 internalization and to increased opioid release and MOR signalling (Chaijale et al., 2013).

In contrast to our findings, they found a preventive


In contrast to our findings, they found a preventive

effect on injury incidence and injury severity (time loss), particularly for non-contact injuries ( Junge et al 2011). It should be noted that their study aimed to evaluate the country-wide implementation of The11, so their design was less rigorous than the design chosen for the present study. The11 was implemented among male and female soccer players of different ages, with different injury patterns. The small sample sizes in their study meant that the Swiss authors were unable to draw conclusions about the effect AUY-922 mouse of The11 on specific injuries or differences between different soccer populations. It remains unknown whether there were similar effects of The11 among senior soccer players compared to the other groups of soccer players. Our study had some limitations, particularly in relation to our cost recording method. Healthcare use and productivity losses click here associated with injury were reported on the recovery form, which was completed after the player’s full recovery. This may have led to some

recall bias for injuries with a long and costly rehabilitation period. To minimise recall bias, the paramedical staff was advised to ask players regularly about their healthcare use and productivity loss, especially players with prolonged sports absenteeism. Another limitation was missing cost data because of incomplete recovery forms (missing therapeutic consultations) and some completely missing recovery forms. The few missing therapeutic consultations (6% of the injuries) may be regarded as missing at random, as no differences were found with the complete recovery data. However, the problem of incomplete recovery forms could have been avoided

if the injury registration system had also required the users to fill in the number of therapeutic consultations if more than one care provider had been consulted. We assume that imputation of these incomplete recovery data resulted in a more precise cost estimation of injuries in both groups, and did not affect the outcomes. As regards the completely missing Ketanserin recovery forms (13% of the injuries), missing injury costs were imputed using the average injury costs in each group. However, this strategy can severely distort the distribution of costs, causing the variation in these costs to be underestimated (Donders et al 2006). The outcomes of the sensitivity analysis should therefore be interpreted with some caution. The study was performed from a societal perspective, but we did not include direct non-healthcare costs in this economic evaluation (Hakkaart-van Roijen et al 2011). Direct nonhealthcare costs consist of traveling expenses, cost for patient time or family members’ time, and other costs. Incorporating these costs will increase the average costs per injury, but we do not expect (substantial) differences in these direct non-healthcare costs between both groups.

, 2014, for review) Collectively, these findings suggest that un

, 2014, for review). Collectively, these findings suggest that under the stressful conditions when we are most likely to engage see more in deliberate forms of cognitive emotion regulation is precisely when the resources supporting these techniques may be compromised. Evidence for this has already been demonstrated in anxiety disorder patients that consistently show impairments using cognitive regulation strategies in the laboratory (Mennin et al., 2005 and Cisler et al., 2010), as well as individuals with high trait anxiety

(Indovina et al., 2011 and Lissek et al., 2005). This is consistent with research showing that negative affect is related to the failure to exercise self-regulatory control over thoughts and behavior (Baumeister and Heatherton, 1996 and Heatherton and Wagner, 2011). Based on

this research, a recent study in our laboratory tested the hypothesis that cognitive emotion regulation would be impaired after exposure to stress (Raio et al., 2013). After a fear-conditioning task where physiological arousal was measured as an index of fear, participants were trained selleck to re-appraise the aversive CS and re-structure the fear-conditioning task overall in a less threatening manner. One day later, participants either underwent a physiological stressor (i.e., CPT) or a non-stress control task, before repeating the aversive-learning task, this time with instructions to utilize their newly acquired regulation skills. The CPT elicited greater stress responses as measured by self-report, as well as increases in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol, markers of noradrenergic and HPA-axis activity, respectively. Stressed participants exhibited marked impairments no regulating both physiological and subjective fear responses to the aversive CS and showed comparable fear responses to the previous day prior to regulation training. In contrast, controls showed reductions in both assays of fear expression. Stress may exert detrimental effects on the capacity to cognitively regulate fear responses through a number of potential mechanisms. In our study,

we found a positive association between alpha-amylase and fear responses after stress, suggesting that the effects of noradrenergic activity on the brain regions that support the regulation of fear may be one possible mechanism by which cognitive fear regulation is impaired. Excessive levels of noradrenaline released after stress can target brain regions that support cognitive emotion regulation, including the amygdala, vmPFC and dorsolateral PFC (see: Arnsten, 2009; or, Hermans et al., 2014, for review). Noradrenaline exerts regionally specific effects on the brain due to various receptor subtype availability (Berridge and Waterhouse, 2003). For example, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors, which are densely distributed throughout the lateral PFC, have a high affinity for noradrenaline.

SPE is further expensive as compared to LLE technique Various so

SPE is further expensive as compared to LLE technique. Various solvents such as ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 100% t-butyl methyl ether and combinations of t-butyl methyl ether and dichloromethane were used for

extraction. Selisistat purchase The highest recovery from the plasma samples was obtained with a 70:30% v/v of t-butyl methyl ether: dichloromethane. Fig. 3 shows the typical chromatograms of a blank plasma sample (A), a spiked plasma sample with PZA (300.0 ng/ml, LLOQ) and MTZ (200.0 ng/ml) (B), a zero blank sample containing only the internal standard (C) indicating the specificity of the method. The retention times for PZA and MTZ were 6.80 and 2.56 min, respectively. The method was found to have high selectivity for the analyte; since no interfering peaks from endogenous compounds were observed at the retention time for PZA in any one of the six independent blank plasma extracts evaluated (Table 1). Calibration curves for PZA in human plasma were calculated by weighted1/concentration2 quadratic regression, with the r2 values of >0.99 for all curves generated during the validation. The calibration curve accuracy for plasma is presented in Fig. 4 demonstrating that measured concentration is within

±15% of the actual concentration point (20% for the lowest point on the standard curve, the LLOQ). A detailed summary of the intra-day and Imatinib purchase inter-day precision and accuracy data generated for the assay validation

is presented in Table 2 was <5% for all QC concentrations, which was within the general assay acceptability criteria for QC samples according to FDA guidelines.12 Limit of detection, LOD was defined as the lowest concentration that produces a peak distinguishable from background noise (minimum ratio of 3:1). The approximate LOD was 100 ng/ml. The LLOQ has been accepted as the lowest points on the standard curve with a relative standard deviation of less than 20% and signal to noise ratio of 5:1. Results at lowest concentration studies (250 ng/ml) met the criteria for the LLOQ (Table 3). The upper limit of quantification (ULOQ) has been accepted as the highest points on the standard curve with a relative standard deviation of less than 15%.12 A critical CYTH4 issue with the analysis of many drugs is their tendency to get adsorbed by reversed phase octadecyl-based chromatographic packing materials, resulting in the carryover effect. However in this analysis no quantifiable carryover effect was obtained when a series of blank (plasma) solutions were injected immediately following the highest calibration standard. The results of auto sampler and freeze–thaw stability are presented in Table 4. Determination of PZA stability following three freeze–thaw cycles showed that for all QC samples there was a minor change in the PZA concentration.

01–1 07), but these effects disappeared after adjusting for trave

01–1.07), but these effects disappeared after adjusting for travel time. The only significant predictor click here of immunization rates in the final model was season, with lower rates observed in the rains than in the dry season (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.81–0.92). This large-scale survey of young children in Kilifi District, Kenya showed very high immunization coverage for all recommended vaccines, with 98.9%, 95.7%, 95.6% and 89.7% of subjects with vaccine cards receiving BCG, three doses of pentavalent, three doses of OPV, and measles vaccines by the age of 1 year, respectively. Only 14% of enrolled

subjects did not have vaccine cards available for examination. In this group, reported coverage was three to seven percentage points lower for all doses of vaccine (except OPV0), but remained >90% for BCG, DTP-HepB-Hib3, OPV3 and >80% for measles. The wide discrepancy between maternal reporting and card data for OPV0 coverage is specific to this vaccine, and may reflect poor recall for the period immediately after delivery. The reliability of mothers’ histories was previously evaluated in this setting among 18 children enrolled in a small immunization coverage survey, showing that 100% of mothers correctly recalled the first dose of DTP, 94% the second dose and 88% the third dose [9]. Evidence from other regions is conflicting, with some studies suggesting that maternal recall has low accuracy [22], [23], [24], [25], [26] and [27].

Most of these studies were conducted in industrialized countries and data from Kilifi, Egypt [23] Paclitaxel concentration or Sudan [28] may be more relevant for our analysis. Regardless of the reliability of maternal recall, we calculated that even with 0% coverage in children without cards, overall coverage for BCG, Pentavalent-3 (or OPV3) and measles would attain 85%, 82% and 77%, respectively; these values would increase

to 92%, 89% and 84% with 50% coverage in children without cards. In addition Chlormezanone to recall bias, our results may be subject to survivor bias because we only sampled children who were alive and 6–11 months of age at the time of the last Epi-DSS census. The 2006 birth cohort had an infant mortality ratio of 37 per 1000 live births (unpublished data, Kilifi Epi-DSS): even if none of these children were vaccinated, BCG, pentavalent-3, and measles coverage would only be reduced to 95%, 92% and 86%, respectively. Together, these results strengthen the evidence from earlier, smaller studies conducted from 2002 to 2004 [9], and attest to the success of the Kenyan EPI in reaching a large majority of children in Kilifi. They also concur with data from the 2008 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (unpublished data, Kenya 2008 DHS) and WHO/UNICEF joint estimates [29] that showed approximately 95% coverage with BCG, 85% with Penta3, and 85–90% with measles vaccine on a national level. We sought to investigate spatial variations in immunization coverage, and found that these were relatively limited in the study area.

It relies on amplification and sequencing of the marker genes (su

It relies on amplification and sequencing of the marker genes (such as the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene) and has greatly increased appreciation for the complexity, in even seemingly simple microbial consortia, Regorafenib mouse including the genital microbiota. Researchers have begun to assert that the human microbiome should be considered in vaccine research [36]. Data are mounting that the gut microbiota plays a role in modulating immune response both locally and systemically [37], [38] and [39]. Among

participants in clinical trials testing the efficacy of oral vaccines against polio, rotavirus and cholera, there were disparities in host immune response outcomes based on geography (developing vs. developed countries) [36]. It is hypothesized that the gut microbiota may have contributed to the selleck inhibitor diverse vaccine efficacy. Ferreira et al. [36] reviewed several studies of probiotic strains which were used for a short time frame, on the order of 1–5 weeks, and concluded that probiotics boosted antibody responses to oral vaccines against rotavirus [40] and [41], Salmonella [42], poliovirus [43] and Vibrio cholera

[44], [45] and [46]. Among infants who were parenterally administered vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and hepatitis B, probiotics proved beneficial in improving immune responses [47], [48] and [49]. While these findings are exciting, the mechanism of interaction between the gut microbiota and host responses remains largely unknown. An even more unfamiliar territory is the role of the penile or vaginal microbiota in the context of STI vaccinations. Vaginal bacterial communities are thought to play an important role in preventing colonization by pathogenic organisms, including those responsible

for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), vulvovaginal secondly candidiasis, and urinary tract infections [50] and [51]. Fundamental differences exist in the microbial diversity of vaginal communities present among reproductive-age women [52] and [53]. Molecular studies based on the 16S rRNA gene have identified over 265 microbial species in the vagina [52] and [54]. Composition and relative abundance of these species varies dramatically between women and rapid fluctuations between Lactobacillus-dominated and non-dominated states are common [52] and [54]. Lactobacillus spp. play a critical role in maintaining a healthy vagina. It is postulated that lactobacilli restrict the growth of non-indigenous organisms by acidifying the milieu and producing bacteriocins and lactic acid [55]. There are five consistent groupings, referred to by Ravel et al. as community state types (CSTs), into which the vaginal microbiota can be categorized (Fig. 2) [52].

Two groups received a formulation containing 10 or 30 μg of each

Two groups received a formulation containing 10 or 30 μg of each dPly and PhtD (dPly/PhtD-10 and dPly/PhtD-30). Two further groups received a formulation containing the PS-conjugates of PHiD-CV (serotypes 1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F) and 10 or 30 μg of each dPly and PhtD (PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 and PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30). All investigational vaccines were adjuvanted with aluminum phosphate. The fifth group received the licensed PHiD-CV [20]. All vaccines were manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines. No other vaccines were

co-administered. Solicited Epacadostat in vitro and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded by the participant’s parents in paper diary cards that were returned to the investigator at the next study visit. Solicited local and general symptoms were recorded within seven days post-vaccination and unsolicited AEs within

31 days post-vaccination. Symptom intensity was graded on a scale of 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). Serious adverse events (SAEs), defined as any medical occurrence that resulted in death, disability or incapacity, was life-threatening, or required hospitalization, were recorded over the whole click here study period. Blood samples were collected pre-vaccination, one month post-dose 2, and pre- and one month post-booster. Serum samples were stored at −20 °C until analysis at GlaxoSmithKline’s laboratory, Rixensart, Belgium and SGS laboratory, Wavre, Belgium. Antibodies were quantified using an in-house multiplex assay coated with protein D (PD), non-detoxified pneumolysin (Ply) and PhtD, with a cut-off of 112 LU/mL for PD, 599 LU/mL for Ply and 391 LU/mL for PhtD. These cut-offs were based on the lower limit of quantification [21], the global

variability of the assay at the highest dilution and the lower limit of linearity. Serotype-specific anti-capsular antibodies against the 10 PS-conjugates and two cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 19A) were measured using a GlaxoSmithKline 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a cut-off of 0.05 μg/mL. An antibody concentration of 0.2 μg/mL measured by the 22F-ELISA is equivalent to the antibody concentration of 0.35 μg/mL measured by the non-22F ELISA of the World Health Organization reference laboratory [22]. Opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) for the above-mentioned antibodies was measured Linifanib (ABT-869) by a pneumococcal killing assay with a cut-off opsonic titer of 8, described previously [23]. Safety and reactogenicity analyses were performed on the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), comprising all toddlers with at least one vaccine dose administration documented. To assess the impact of each protein formulation on the incidence of grade 3 fever (primary objective), the dPly/PhtD-10 and dPly/PhtD-30 groups were pooled, as were the PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-10 and PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD-30 groups, and group differences (pooled dPly/PhtD minus PHiD-CV or pooled PHiD-CV/dPly/PhtD minus PHiD-CV) were calculated.

The concentration of test inhibitor required for 50% reduction in

The concentration of test inhibitor required for 50% reduction in the measured isozyme activity (IC50) was estimated using GrapPad Prism® software. Samples for in vitro biotransformation GSK J4 mw were obtained following incubation

of DNDI-VL-2098 (10 μM) with microsomes in presence of cofactors, and with hepatocytes for up to 120 min as described for metabolic stability. Samples for in vivo biotransformation were oral PK blood samples at 4, 6 and 8 h post dose from mouse (50 mg/kg), rat (500 mg/kg) and dog (50 mg/kg). All samples were precipitated with acetonitrile, vortex-mixed and centrifuged (1700g, 10 min) and the supernatants were analyzed for Phase I and Phase II metabolites. All in vivo and in vitro samples were analyzed

for DNDI-VL-2098 learn more and internal standard (DNDI-VL-2075, a structural analog) content using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, Shimadzu Prominence, Japan) tandem mass spectrometric (API4000, Applied Biosystems, USA) method. Positive-ion electron spray ionization mode was used and MRM transitions of 360.20/175.00 for DNDI-VL-2098 and 370.20/241.20 for DNDI-VL-2075 (5 μg/mL) were monitored. An isocratic HPLC method with a 4 min run time was employed for analysis. The mobile phase comprised 5 mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile 20:80 (v/v) with 0.05% formic acid and the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. Separation was achieved using Kromasil® C8 column (4.6 × 50 mm, 5 μ, Chromatographie Service, USA) maintained at 40 °C employing an injection volume of 10 μL for in vivo samples and 5 μL for in vitro samples. In preliminary studies, DNDI-VL-2098 showed some instability in plasma from different species. Acidification of blood samples from dosed animals with many an equal volume of 0.1 M HCl resolved the issue, as bench-top stability of greater than 5 h was achieved; therefore all concentrations were determined in blood. Blood samples were extracted using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A 50 μL aliquot of

blood, internal standard (20 μL) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (100 mM, 50 μL) and 1.25 mL of MTBE were vortex mixed and then centrifuged at 2500g for 5 min. A 1 mL aliquot of supernatant was evaporated under flow of nitrogen gas at 50 °C until dryness, and the residue was reconstituted with 200 μL of mobile phase before analysis. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL and the assay was linear over a 1000-fold concentration range. All samples were processed along with calibration curve and quality control samples. An acceptance criterion of ±15% was used for all calibration curve (CC), and quality control (QC) standards except for LLOQ sample where ±20% was the acceptance criteria. Samples were processed by protein precipitation with acetonitrile for all assays except the blood to plasma concentration ratio assay where LLE using MTBE was employed.

One suggested solution is combining lower prices of healthier pro

One suggested solution is combining lower prices of healthier products with tax increases on unhealthier food products (Nordstrom and Thunstrom, 2009). Epstein

found that a price increase of high-caloric foods was effective in decreasing the purchase of these items while increasing the purchase of low-caloric foods. Giessen and colleagues also concluded that a > 25% tax rise on high-caloric foods is effective in decreasing the demand for calories (Giesen et al., 2011a and Giesen et al., 2011b). The current study, however, does not provide support for increasing unhealthier food prices. In addition, results of the study could not confirm the hypothesis that discounts on healthier food products are most effective when supported by price increases of unhealthier products, nor that higher energy purchases may be prevented using such a combination of strategies. Nordström et al. found similar Y-27632 order results in a simulation modeling study Epigenetic inhibitor where the increase in fat consumption remained prevalent in simulations combining a subsidizing measure with a tax on unhealthier products (Nordstrom and Thunstrom, 2011). Nevertheless, the current study found that price increases lowered the amount of unhealthy food purchases to some extent. The absence of significant interaction effects may be due to a power problem;

our sample size was not specifically powered for these interaction effects. Moreover, our power calculations were based on quite large Adenylyl cyclase effect sizes, meaning that our sample size was likely too small to detect smaller effects of the price increases. It is therefore important to study the combined effects of taxes and subsidies further in larger populations. Moreover, the price increase levels in this study were relatively low whereas the price discounts ran up to 50%. We opted for these levels based on the results of a previously conducted Delphi study where it was found that subsidies are more politically feasible than taxes (Waterlander et al., 2010a). Nevertheless, higher

tax increases can be feasible when considering the revenue they bring, especially given the current budget deficits many governments are facing. We therefore propose that increased taxes on unhealthier food products could be effective when they are high and prevent shifting to cheaper (unhealthier) alternatives. Another important aspect to consider is that our results may be an underestimation of price strategies in practice, because the pricing strategies were silent. Normally, when products are sold at lower prices, effort is made in drawing people’s attention toward this by using signs or advertisements (Anderson and Simester, 1998 and Blattberg et al., 1995). This may apply to price increases; it may be more important to tell people that products are taxed than to actually tax it (Lacaniloa et al., 2011).