The dark contrast area fills

the CNF Figure 2b shows a h

The dark contrast area fills

the CNF. Figure 2b shows a high-resolution image of the carbon wall around the surface area in the Sn-filled CNF. Fringes at intervals of about 0.33 nm represent the distance between the graphite layers. These fringes are not straight but meandering and disjointed, indicating that the carbon wall of the CNF contains defects. EELS spectra for the elemental analysis were acquired from the CNF shown within the broken black circle in Figure 2a. The EELS spectra, shown in Figure 2c, confirm that the energy loss near the edge see more structure originated from Sn and C and that the CNF was made of Sn and C. Furthermore, Sn mapping of the Sn-filled CNF area shown in Figure 3 (top panel) was performed. The results of the Sn mapping, shown in Figure 3 (bottom panel), confirm the existence of Sn in MK5108 the internal space of the CNF as well as in the carbon wall. The intensity of Sn in the carbon wall area was smaller than that around the central axis of the CNF, and this result showed that the amount of Sn in the carbon wall is seen to be lower than that around the central axis of the CNF. The above results reveal the successful growth of Sn-filled CNFs and the existence of Sn in the carbon walls of the grown CNFs. Figure 2 TEM image of Sn-filled CNF, high-resolution TEM image of carbon wall, and EELS spectra. (a) TEM image of Sn-filled CNF, (b) high-resolution TEM image of the Ribonucleotide reductase carbon

wall around the surface area of the Sn-filled CNF, and (c) EELS spectra from the area enclosed by a broken circle in Figure 2a. Figure 3 TEM image and Sn map of Sn-filled CNF. Although many articles have reported the growth of metal-filled CNFs [12, 15–17], the present study describes the first successful growth of Sn-filled CNFs on a Si substrate by MPCVD. Moreover, our results reveal the existence of Sn not only in the internal spaces of the Sn-filled CNFs but also in their carbon walls. The metal filling mechanism

in the internal spaces of the CNFs was considered almost the same as that reported by Hayashi et al., in which metal is introduced to the internal space by a capillary effect during CNF growth [7]. Here, we discuss the reasons for the existence of Sn in the carbon wall. When the substrate was annealed, the Sn on the substrate formed particles. The plasma was then ignited, and the growth process began. The ions in the plasma collided with the surfaces of the Sn particles. Although these collisions increase the surface temperature of the particles, the exact temperature of the Sn particles was not determined. However, the surface temperature of the Sn particles is believed to have been approximately the same as the plasma temperature (several thousands of degrees Celsius [18]) because the substrate was covered completely by the plasma. The introduction of Sn into the carbon walls of the CNFs under these conditions could be explained by various phenomena.

PCR products were purified using GeneJET Gel Extraction Kit (Ther

PCR products were purified using GeneJET Gel Extraction Kit (Thermo Scientific Alpelisib price Fermentas) according to the manufacturer‘s instructions. The cloned DNA fragments were subjected to sequencing using the ABI 3130XL genetic analyser. Sequence walking was explored using internal primers constructed within the spacer sequences to complete the sequencing of the PCR fragments. A slightly modified spacer-crawling approach [29] was applied to amplify the CRISPR arrays of strains GV28 and GV33. The primers targeted cas2 and the repeat sequence within the CRISPR locus.

The resulting PCR product represented a ladder consisting of a number of fragments with increasing lengths: each fragment differed by the length of one spacer and one repeat. The mixture of fragments was cloned into the pJET1.2 YM155 mw vector (Thermo Scientific Fermentas); the recombinant plasmids containing the longest DNA inserts were selected and then subjected to sequencing. The

next round of amplification used the primer generated from the further spacer sequence and the primers located on the flanking regions downstream of the CRISPR sequence (Additional file 2). The resulting contigs were assembled with a minimum overlapping region of three spacers. Amplification and sequencing of the cas genes The presence of the cas genes was verified by amplification of the regions containing cas5-cas6e-cas1-cas2 (~3.6 kbp), cas3-cse1 (~3 kbp), cse2-cas5 (~2.7 kbp), cas5 (~0.88 Janus kinase (JAK) kbp) and cse2 (~0.6 kbp). The primers used in the PCR are provided in Additional file 2. The PCR regimen included 28 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 s, primer annealing at 58°C for 30 s, and extension at 72°C for 1 min/kb PCR target. The final extension step was prolonged to 10 min. The cloned DNA fragments containing cas5 and cas2 were subjected to sequencing. CRISPR sequence analysis CRISPR information for the three G. vaginalis genomes (ATCC14019, 409–05, and HMP9231)

was retrieved from the CRISPR database [24]. CRISPRs Finder [24] was used to detect CRISPR repeat and spacer sequences. The identification of cas genes was also performed using NCBI BLAST (http://​blast.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​Blast.​cgi). Each piece of CRISPR and cas information retrieved from the databases was manually proofread. The search for similarities between each spacer and the sequences deposited in GenBank was performed using BLASTn at NCBI, with the search set limited to Bacteria (taxid:2) or Viruses (taxid:10239). All matches with a bit score above 40.0, corresponding to 100% identity over at least 20 bp, were considered legitimate hits. Only the top hit was taken into consideration. Matches to sequences found within G. vaginalis CRISPR loci were discarded. Spacers were compared to one another using the MAFFT program [33]. CRISPR spacers with up to three mismatches that had 100% overlap between sequences were considered identical. The consensus sequences of the CRISPR repeat and protospacer region alignments were generated by WebLogo [34].

What are the possible mechanisms behind a relationship between cu

What are the possible mechanisms behind a relationship between cultural activities organised at work and employee health? This has not been discussed extensively in the Smad inhibitor scientific literature, but possible health promotion effects of cultural activities in general have been discussed scientifically. Cultural activities may promote creativity (Wikström 1994) and increase cohesiveness in groups (Cuypers et al.

2011). For specific activities, for instance choir singing, there are studies which have shown beneficial psychological and biological effects of choir rehearsals (Sandgren and Borg 2009; Kreutz et al. 2004) as well as of singing lessons (Grape et al. 2003). Similarly, amateur tango dancing stimulates beneficial endocrinological reactions (Quiroga Murcia et al. 2009). More long-lasting endocrinological effects favouring regenerative function have also been shown when the choir participation continues once a week for

several months (Grape et al. 2010). In samples of elderly people, there is extensive research showing that choir singing stimulates a feeling see more that life is worth living and that this motivates participants to assume health promoting life habits (Clift and Hancox 2001; Cohen 2009). All of these possible mechanisms could be relevant for possible effects of cultural activities at work. The workplace, however, is an arena on which cultural activities offered to the employees could have unexpected creative stimulating cultural experiences. Such activities may be different from the ones the employees would choose with family

and friends and the context is a different one. Interviews from our own pilot study (Theorell et al. 2009) illustrated that the introduction of a weekly cultural programme for employees “opened eyes” to unexpected worlds for some employees. In summary, possible health effects of cultural activities in the workplace could arise (1) because such activities may strengthen cohesiveness between employees and between management and employees resulting in improved psychosocial work environment why or (2) because of direct effects of the cultural activities themselves. The present study was designed to illuminate firstly whether cultural activities at work are related to mental health in employees and secondly to what extent possible associations between cultural activities at work and employee health could be explained statistically by indirect effects on psychosocial work environment variables as they are perceived by the employees themselves (“a listening/non-listening manager” and psychological demands and decision latitude). The former type of manager variable has been established in our previous studies as an important explanatory factor in “ongoing conflicts” (Oxenstierna et al. 2011).

Subcortical tissue thin, a loose t intricata of thin-walled, hya

Subcortical tissue thin, a loose t. intricata of thin-walled, hyaline hyphae (3–)4–7(–9) μm (n = 15) wide. Subperithecial tissue a dense hyaline t. angularis–epidermoidea of isodiametric subglobose or angular, thin-walled cells (4–)12–44(–63) × (3.5–)6–15(–19) μm (n = 30), becoming smaller towards the stroma base and intermingled with hyphal elements. Asci (68–)72–86(–98) × (3.5–)4.0–4.8(–5.2) μm, stipe (5–)7–20(–28) μm long (n = 30); no croziers apparent. Ascospores hyaline, finely verruculose, cells dimorphic, but often similar, distal cell (2.4–)2.6–3.3(–4.3) × (2.4–)2.5–3.0(–3.6) μm, l/w (0.9–)1.0–1.2(–1.4) (n = 70), subglobose, sometimes slightly tapered towards upper end, proximal

cell (2.4–)3.0–3.7(–4.5) × (2.0–)2.2–2.6(–3.2) μm, l/w (1.0–)1.2–1.5(–1.9) (n = 70), wedge-shaped or oblong, broadly rounded at lower end. Anamorph on the natural Selleck PXD101 substrate (WU 24044): White hairy tufts on wood, partly in close association with stromata, in circular to oblong, confluent patches to 15 mm long, with long sterile elongations when immature. Main axes 3–5 μm wide, with short branches in right angles, loosely disposed or pachybasium-like, i.e. richly and densely branched, with dense whorls of 2–5(–6) phialides on 1–2 celled branches 3–4(–7) μm wide; branching points often thickened. NVP-HSP990 Phialides

(4.2–)4.7–8.2(–12.0) × (2.5–)2.7–3.2(–3.5) μm, l/w = 1.5–2.8(–4.5), (1.4–)2.0–2.7(–3.0) μm wide at the base (n = 30), plump, short and thick, ampulliform or lageniform, widest in or below the middle. Conidia (2.2–)2.5–3.2(–3.7) × 1.7–2.0(–2.5)

μm, l/w = 1.2–1.5(–1.7) (n = 30), hyaline, ellipsoidal or oval, smooth, with one or few guttules. Cultures and anamorph: optimal growth at 25°C on all media, no growth at 35°C. On CMD after 72 h 5–7 mm at 15°C, 7–10 mm at 25°C, 3–10 mm at 30°C; mycelium covering the plate after 3–6 weeks. Colony characteristic, forming silky, fan-shaped lobes, with little mycelium on the agar surface, finely but distinctly zonate; hyphae Vorinostat purchase narrow, soon degenerating in the centre. Aerial hyphae inconspicuous, but sometimes appearing in loose, irregular, sterile or fertile tufts mostly in distal or lateral regions of the colony, on plates entirely covered by mycelium. After ca 6 days often characteristic colourless to white crystals appearing on the surface, growing to 0.5–1.5 mm diam, sometimes appearing as oily drops inside the agar; in some isolates or after several transfers no crystals formed. Autolytic activity and coilings variable, usually inconspicuous. No distinct odour detected. Either no diffusing pigment formed or a diffuse greyish yellow, golden- or yellow-brown, 4B4–7 to 5CD7–8, unevenly distributed pigment noted. Chlamydospores 5–19(–29) × (5–)6–15(–17) μm (n = 10), rare, terminal and intercalary, globose, pyriform or irregular.

Photosynth Res 101:217–232PubMed Goltsev V, Zaharieva I, Chernev

Photosynth Res 101:217–232PubMed Goltsev V, Zaharieva I, Chernev P, Koezmanova M, Kalaji HM, EPZ015938 concentration Yordanov I, Krasteva V, Alexandrov V, Stefanov D, Allakhverdiev SI, Strasser RJ (2012) Drought-induced modifications of photosynthetic electron transport in intact leaves: analysis and use of neural networks as a tool for a rapid non-invasive estimation. Biochim Biophys Acta 1817:1490–1498PubMed Gorbe E, Calatayud A (2012) Applications of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique in horticultural research: a review.

Sci Hortic 138:24–35 Gotoh E, Matsumoto M, Ogawa K, Kobayashi Y, Tsuyama M (2010) A qualitative analysis of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I from the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence transients in Arabidopsis: a new platform for the in vivo investigation of the chloroplast redox state. Photosynth Res 103:111–123PubMed Gottardini E, Cristofori A, Cristofolini F, Nali C, Pellegrini E, Busotti F, Ferretti M (2014) Chlorophyll-related indicators are linked tot visible ozone symptoms: evidence from a field study on native Viburnum lantana L. plants in northern Italy. Ecol Indic 39:65–74 Govindjee (1995) Sixty-three

years since Kautsky: chlorophyll a fluorescence. Aust J Plant Physiol 22:131–160 Govindjee (2004) Chlorophyll a fluorescence: a bit of basics and history. In: Papageorgiou GC, Govindjee (eds) Chl a fluorescence: a signature of photosynthesis, advances in photosynthesis and respiration, vol 19. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–42 Gray GR, Savitch LV, Ivanov AG, Huner NPA (1996) Photosystem II excitation pressure and development of resistance to photoinhibition. Plant Physiol 110:61–71PubMedCentralPubMed Greer DH, Berry JA, Björkman O (1986) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in intact bean leaves: role of light and temperature, and requirement for chloroplast-protein synthesis during recovery. Planta 168:253–260PubMed Groot ML, Immune system Frese RN, de Weerd FL, Bromek K, Petterson Å,

Peterman EJG, van Stokkum IHM, van Grondelle R, Dekker JP (1999) Spectroscopic properties of the CP43 core antenna protein of photosystem II. Biophys J 77:3328–3340PubMedCentralPubMed Guarini JM, Moritz C (2009) Modelling the dynamics of the electron transport rate measured by PAM fluorimetry during rapid light curve experiments. Photosynthetica 47:206–214 Guidi L, Degl’Innocenti E (2011) Imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence: a tool to study abiotic stress in plants. In: Shanker A (ed) Abiotic stress in plants—mechanisms and adaptations. InTech, Available from: http://​www.​intechopen.​com/​articles/​show/​title/​imaging-of-chlorophyll-a-fluorescence-a-tool-to-study-abiotic-stress-in-plants Guidi L, Degl’Innocenti E (2012) Chlorophyll a fluorescence in abiotic stress. In: Venkateswarlu B, Shanker AK, Shanker C, Maheswari M (eds) Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies.

B: Opacified small bowel present almost entirely on the right sid

B: Opacified small bowel present almost entirely on the right side. Figure 2 Gastrointestinal contrast studies. A: Upper KPT-330 manufacturer gastrointestinal contrast studies showed malrotation of the small bowel without evidence of the duodenum crossing the lumbar spine. B: All small bowel was noted to be sequestered on the right side of the abdomen. The cecum lay on the left side of the abdomen and the ileum entered it from the right. Based on the diagnosis of malrotation, the patient

consented to exploratory laparoscopy. No segmented gangrene of the small intestine was present. Adhesions surrounding the SMA and cecal bands attaching the duodenum and right colon were noted. The Ladd’s procedure was performed. In detail, the cecum and right colon were rotated medially to expose the duodenum. The base of the mesentery was widened by incising the peritoneum. Then, the duodenum was moved until it was oriented inferiorly toward the right lower quadrant. The entire length of bowel was examined to assure that no other obstructive bands or kinks were present. The small bowel was then placed on the right side of the abdomen, and the colon was placed on the left side of the abdomen. Finally, the appendix was removed. Operative time was 195 minutes with

negligible bleeding. Postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged selleck compound two days later and has remained C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) asymptomatic without recurrence of abdominal pain three months postoperatively. Discussion Malrotation of the intestinal tract is a congenital anomaly referring to either lack of or incomplete rotation of the fetal intestines around the axis of the superior mesenteric artery during fetal development. The malrotaion of the gut and abnormal location of the cecum produces a narrow superior mesenteric vascular pedicle, as opposed to the normally broadbased small bowel mesentery. This narrow superior mesenteric artery takeoff and lack of posterior peritoneal fusion predispose the patient

to subsequent midgut volvulus and obstruction with potential vascular catastrophe. Approximately 85% of malrotation cases present in the first two weeks of life [5, 6]. However, presentation of intestinal malrotation is very rare and its incidence has been reported to be between 0.2% and 0.5% [7]. True incidence of malrotation in older children or adults is unclear, because a number of patients may be asymptomatic. Not all patients with malrotation present with symptoms. Even once the anomaly is discovered, many live without complaint. In adults or older children, the difficulty of diagnosis results from both the absence of specific physical findings and the low frequency in adults [8, 9]. Midgut malrotation in adults presents in numerous ways and the symptoms are non-specific. There are no typical sets of symptoms that are diagnostic of clinical problems.

​geneontology ​org[74] To establish if differentially expressed

​geneontology.​org[74]. To establish if differentially expressed genes are located in the vicinity of

the IS elements in the genomes of Xoo African strain BAI3 and Xoo Asian strain MAFF311018, we selected a region of 20 kb that flanked the IS elements in both the MAI1 VX-689 and BAI3 genomes. BLAST searches were performed against these flanking sequences, using the Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences. For the sequences located within the 20-kb sequence flanking the IS elements, the relative distance of each sequence to the IS element was calculated and compared between the two genomes. Southern blot analysis of differentially expressed genes Southern blot analysis was used to confirm that the DNA fragments derived from individual clones were present in the initial tester (Xoo MAI1 strain) and absent in the driver DNA

(Xoo PXO86 or Xoc BLS256 strain). Eight genes (FI978063, FI978069, FI978079, FI978093, FI978109, FI978168, FI978197 and FI978322) were selected according C59 wnt to sequence similarities and library origin. Additionally, the gene FI978197 was selected to screen genomic DNA from different Xoo Asian strains (HN35, PXO339, PXO341, and PXO86), Xoo African strains (MAI1, BAI3, NAI8, and BAI4), Xoc African strains (MAI11 and MAI3), and the Xoc Asian strain BLS256 (Figure 2). Briefly, for each strain, 5 μg of genomic DNA was digested with 10 units of RsaI and run on 0.8% agarose gels. Casein kinase 1 The DNA was transferred to Hybond-N+ nylon membranes (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) by capillary transfer. The insert DNA was amplified by PCR, using the nested primers provided with the PCR-Select™ Bacterial Genome Subtraction Kit (Clontech Laboratories, Inc.). The amplified DNA fragment was gel purified, using the QIAquick Gel Extraction Kit (QIAGEN, Inc.), as recommended by the manufacturer. The DNA fragments were labelled with [α32P] dCTP by random priming (MegaPrime labelling kit, Amersham Biosciences). Conditions of hybridization

and washes were done at 65°C. Filters were washed with three solutions: the first of 2× SSC and 0.1% SDS for 20 min, followed by two washings with 1× SSC and 0.1% SDS for 10 min each, and a final wash with 0.1× SSC and 0.1% SDS for 20 min. Blots were exposed on a PhosphorImager (model Storm 860, Amersham Pharmacia Biotech Inc.-Molecular Dynamics Division, Piscataway, NJ, USA). Validation by quantitative QRT-PCR We selected 14 genes that had been differentially expressed at various time points during infection by Xoo MAI1 for confirmation by QRT-PCR. The primers for quantitative detection were designed, using the Beacon Designer™ software (PREMIER Biosoft International, Palo Alto, CA, USA) (Table 4). All experiments were performed in triplicate. PCR mixtures were prepared, using FullVelocity® SYBR® Green QPCR Master Mix (Stratagene).

harzianum CECT 2413 in its early interactions with tomato plant r

harzianum CECT 2413 in its early interactions with tomato plant roots using microarray technology. We report the construction of a Trichoderma HDO microarray composed of 384,659 25-mer probes designed against 14,081 EST-derived transcripts from twelve strains belonging to the eight Trichoderma species cited above, and 9,121 genome-derived transcripts from T. reseei [20], since it was the only entire Trichoderma genome available when the microarray was designed.

As far as we know, this is the first time that an oligonucleotide microarray has been used to study gene expression changes of a Trichoderma strain in the presence of a plant host. RNAs from T. harzianum CECT 2413 mycelia cultured in the presence and absence of tomato plants and also in

glucose- or chitin-containing media were hybridized to Selleck TSA HDAC the Trichoderma selleck screening library HDO microarray proposed in this work. Results Trichoderma HDO microarray design The probe selection process conducted as described in Methods yielded a total of 384,659 different probes [GEO accession number: GPL7702] that were included on our custom-designed Trichoderma HDO microarray. After mapping these individual probes to the initial collections of EST-derived transcripts of twelve Trichoderma strains and genome-derived transcripts of T. reesei, from which the probes were designed, it was found that approximately 35% of the probes on the chip matched transcripts from Trichoderma spp. and about 65% matched transcripts from T. reesei, which was consistent with the size in base-pairs of each of the two sequence collections (7.1 and 13.9 Mbp, respectively). Moreover, 1.5% of the probes on the chip could be mapped to sequences from both databases. The the number of probes associated with each particular transcript sequence (probe set size) ranged from 1 to 94 for Trichoderma spp. transcripts, and from 1 to 1,245 for T. reesei transcripts, with a median

value of 16 and 22, respectively, and a maximum of approximately 40 nt between adjacent probes (data not shown). The final composition of the microarray in terms of the number of transcript sequences of each Trichoderma strain represented by a probe set is shown in Figure 1. In all, of the original 14,237 EST-derived sequences of Trichoderma spp. and 9,129 genome-derived sequences of T. reesei, only 156 (1,1%) and 8 (0.1%), respectively, were not represented on the microarray since no probe passed the selection procedure (the identification codes of the excluded sequences are available as supplementary material in additional file 1). Figure 1 Trichoderma HDO microarray composition. Number of gene transcripts of Trichoderma spp. (EST-derived) and T. reesei (genome-derived) represented on the Trichoderma HDO microarray generated in the present work. Overview of expression data in T. harzianum from microarray analysis Trichoderma HDO microarrays were hybridized with cDNA obtained from T.

Z Kinderchir 1984, 39:46–49 PubMed 11 Jansen PL, Sturm E: Geneti

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J Clin Microbiol 2000, 38:3686–3688 PubMed 21 Krishnamurthy A, A

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