In general, the principal events that shape a bacterial chromosome are gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, gene loss and chromosomal rearrangements (Andersson & Hughes, 2009). Of these, gene duplication seems to contribute only modestly, horizontal gene transfer seem to be quite important, and gene deletion and genetic drift, which are countered by positive selection, probably vary with ecological niche and the type of chromosome rearrangements. Of these three contributions, it is likely that gene deletion and genetic drift are the most related to evolutionary time because such events are largely dependent on repeated sequences and mobile elements (Ventura et al., 2007). However, up
to the present, no reliable method of tracing the evolutionary development of chromosomes in terms of these various check details events has been successful. Nonetheless, there is evidence to suggest that the Actinomycetales might have enough coherence across their chromosomes to allow some insights into this problem. Chromosome diversity and similarity within the Actinomycetales are made more interesting because of the topological diversity of their chromosomes; specifically, some families seem to have a preference for linear chromosomes, whereas the majority prefer circular chromosomes (Lin et al., 1993; Reeves et al., 1998; Redenbach et al., 2000; Bentley et al., 2002;
Goshi et al., 2002; Ikeda et al., 2003; Bentley & Parkhill, 2004; McLeod et al., 2006; Ohnishi et al., 2008). In fact, the frequency of linear chromosomes selleck compound within the Actinomycetales is high compared with all other orders in the kingdom Bacteria. What evolutionary factors lead to a linear vs. a circular chromosome remain open to debate (Chen, 1996; Chen et al., 2002; Qin & Cohen, 2002), but it is important to realize that linearity vs. circularity does not seem to affect chromosome structure dramatically.
Here, we will examine the chromosome diversity and similarity of the Actinomycetales, as displayed by the complete chromosome sequences available, and suggest that changes vary Urease across the chromosome (Ventura et al., 2007; Hsaio & Kirby, 2008; Kirby et al., 2008). As the number of chromosome sequences available for the Actinomycetales increases and the genera from which they come broadens, it becomes important to try and understand how chromosome evolution in this order has occurred and is occurring. This is not least because over 80% of the world’s antibiotics originally were identified as being produced by a member of the Actinomycetales (Hopwood, 2006). The majority of prokaryote chromosomes are believed to be circular. However, it can also be stated that biochemical proof of the circularity of many of these chromosomes is lacking and that they are circular by default. This remains true for the Actinobacteria and the Actinomycetales.