Progress in our understanding of neural plasticity has profound implications
for the treatment of a number of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, and for enhancing performance in what are considered normal subjects. One of the promising aspects of neural plasticity is that it implies that the alterations that occur are reversible, even neuronal atrophy and cell loss. Reversibility of structural as well as functional Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical plasticity has already been demonstrated in response to pharmacological treatments or even behavioral therapy. As the fundamental mechanisms of neural plasticity are further elucidated, new Calcitriol targets and paradigms for enhancing plasticity will be revealed and will lead to more effective and faster-acting therapeutic interventions. Selected abbrewiations Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and acronyms BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate CaRE cAMP response element CREB cAMP response element binding protein FGF-2 fibroblast growth factor-2 5-HT 5 -hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin) Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical LTP long-term potentiation NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate PDE4 phosphodiesterase
type IV PKA protein kinase SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Notes This work is supported by USPHS grants MH45481 and 2 P01 MH25642, a Veterans Administration National Center Grant for posttraumatic stress disorder, and by the Connecticut Mental Health Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Center.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most, exciting imaging technologies for texture analysis: it offers the best soft, tissue contrast, which can be dramatically varied during imaging. Careful study of the
dependence of texture parameters on MRI data collection strategy is essential for texture analysis in order to avoid artificial texture from the scanner. This is critical, since different centers may vary their measuring sequences and acquisition protocols for their clinical investigations. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The basic problem in quantitative MRI texture analysis is the large number of different measuring techniques and imaging parameters, which can be easily changed during a clinical examination. Thus, different techniques and imaging parameters produce totally different patterns in the texture parameters of the same tissues in clinical examinations Drug_discovery with different sensitivity to artificial texture overlaid by the scanner. The main problem in texture analysis with MRI is to avoid this artificial texture and minimize its influence. The presented work was performed in the framework of a European research project COST (Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) Bll between 1998 and 2002 by institutions from 13 European countries, aimed at the development of quantitative methods for MRI texture analysis.1 For further detail of texture analysis, parameters, and software, see the article by Materka in this volume2 or references 3 to 7.