30 [95% CI: 0 13-0 66], P = 0 003) were the independent predictor

30 [95% CI: 0.13-0.66], P = 0.003) were the independent predictors for AF recurrence during the entire follow-up. Although effect of RAS-B was not significant during the early follow-up (<3 month), it was the only independent predictor during the late follow-up (>3 months) (HR = 0.21 [95% CI: 0.08-0.53], P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in LA-RR occurrence regarding RAS-B medication. The use of RAS-B was an independent predictor of late AF recurrences irrespective of an early LA-RR occurrence.

Conclusions: Treatment with RAS-B significantly reduced the AF recurrence after PVI. This benefit became Screening Library cell assay more prominent 3 months after the PVI. (PACE 2011; 34:296-303)”
“Copy number

variation (CNV) is a type of genetic variation which may have important roles in phenotypic YH25448 variability and disease susceptibility. To hunt for genetic variants underlying human height

variation, we performed a genome wide CNV association study for human height in 618 Chinese unrelated subjects using Affymetrix 500K array set. After adjusting for age and sex, we found that four CNVs at 6p21.3, 8p23.3-23.2, 9p23 and 16p12.1 were associated with human height (with borderline significant p value: 0.013, 0.011, 0.024, 0.049; respectively). However, after multiple tests correction, none of them was associated with human height. We observed that the gain of copy number (more than 2 copies) at 8p23.3-23.2 was associated with lower height (normal copy number vs. gain of copy number: 161.2 cm vs. 153.7 cm, p = 0.011), which accounted for 0.9% of height variation. Loss of copy number (less than 2 copies) at 6p21.3 was associated with 0.8% lower height (loss of copy number vs. normal copy number: 154.5 cm vs. 161.1 cm, p = 0.013). Since no important genes influencing

height located in CNVs at loci of 8p23.3-23.2 and 6p21.3, the two CNVs may cause the structural rearrangements of neighbored important candidate genes, thus regulates the variation of height. Our results expand our knowledge of the genetic factors underlying height variation and the biological regulation of human height.”
“Background: Children’s vegetable consumption is below recommended amounts. According to self-determination theory, stimulating children’s feelings of autonomy by offering a choice of vegetables may be a valuable JNJ-26481585 ic50 strategy to increase their vegetable liking and consumption. The effect of choice-offering on children’s vegetable liking and consumption has, to our knowledge, not yet been studied.

Objective: The objective was to investigate whether having a choice between 2 vegetables enhances children’s vegetable liking and consumption.

Design: Three hundred three children (age: 4-6 y) were randomly assigned to receive I of 3 dinner conditions in a restaurant setting. Two similarly liked vegetables were presented, after which the child had no choice, a premeal choice, or an at-meal choice. Subsequently, the dinner was consumed with one parent present.


“Background: Efforts to ease administration and enhance ac


“Background: Efforts to ease administration and enhance acceptability of the oral anti-malarial artemether-lumefantrine (A-L) crushed tablet to infants and children triggered the development of a novel dispersible tablet of A-L. During early development of this new formulation, two studies were performed in healthy subjects, one to evaluate the palatability of three flavours

of A-L, and a second one to compare the bioavailability of active 4SC-202 cell line principles between the dispersible tablet and the tablet (administered crushed and intact).

Methods: Study 1 was performed in 48 healthy schoolchildren in Tanzania. Within 1 day, all subjects tasted a strawberry-, orange-and cherry-flavoured oral A-L suspension

for 10 seconds (without swallowing) in a randomized, single-blind, crossover fashion. The palatability of each formulation was rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Study 2 was an open, randomized crossover trial in 48 healthy adults given single doses of A-L (80 mg artemether + 480 mg lumefantrine) with food. VX-689 manufacturer The objectives were to compare the bioavailability of artemether, dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and lumefantrine between the dispersible tablet and the tablet administered crushed (primary objective) and intact (secondary objective).

Results: Study 1 showed no statistically significant difference in VAS scores between the three flavours but cherry had the highest score in several ratings (particularly for overall liking). Study 2 demonstrated that the dispersible and crushed tablets delivered bioequivalent artemether, DHA and lumefantrine systemic exposure (area under the curve [AUC]); mean +/- SD AUC(0-tlast) were 208 +/- 113 vs 195 +/- 93 h.ng/ml for artemether, 206 +/- 81 vs 199 +/- 84 h.ng/ml for DHA and 262 +/- 107 vs 291 +/- 106 h.mu g/ml for lumefantrine. Bioequivalence was selleckchem also shown for peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of DHA and lumefantrine. Compared with the intact tablet, the dispersible tablet resulted in bioequivalent lumefantrine exposure, but AUC and C(max) values of artemether and DHA were 20-35% lower.

Conclusions:

Considering that cherry was the preferred flavour, and that the novel A-L dispersible tablet demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic performances to the tablet administered crushed, a cherry-flavoured A-L dispersible tablet formulation was selected for further development and testing in a large efficacy and safety study in African children with malaria.”
“This work investigates the influence of some ammonium quaternary compounds as coupling agent in polyethylene/clay nanocomposites to improve the performance of polyethylene used as packaging barrier material. The 3 wt % of vermiculite used as a nanofiller was added to linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and to linear low-density polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (LLDPE-g-MA).

02), but did not increase belief that a signed

02), but did not increase belief that a signed Blasticidin S cost donor card would interfere with medical care (28%

vs. 32%, p = 0.37). These findings provide support for the careful expansion of uDCD, albeit with formal consent prior to organ preservation.”
“Study Design. Retrospective study.

Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of International Classification of Disease Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD9-CM) hospital discharge codes to define degenerative cervical spine surgery in comparison to patient operative notes in the medical record.

Summary of Background Data. Population-based studies of spine surgery have often relied on administrative databases as a primary information source, but little is known about the validity of using ICD9-CM codes to identify these operations.

Methods. We performed a retrospective study comparing ICD9-CM check details billing codes to patient operative notes, the gold standard, for patients undergoing spine surgery in 2006 at a single academic center.

Results. We identified 1090 procedures of which 265 were categorized as cervical spine surgery for degenerative indications based on the operative notes. Compared to operative notes, our ICD9-CM algorithm had high sensitivity and specificity for selecting

surgery at the cervical spine level and cervical spine surgery for degenerative indications. Categorization of cases by procedure had high sensitivity and specificity for fusion and surgical approach (>95%). Categorization of cases by primary diagnosis was generally less

accurate. Cervical spondylosis with myelopathy was the most sensitive primary diagnosis. Categorization of cases by procedure had high sensitivity and specificity for fusion and surgical approach (>= 96%). However, diagnoses such as herniated disc and procedures such as laminectomy had low sensitivity but high specificity.

Conclusion. The use of our ICD9-CM algorithm to define spine surgery at the cervical spine level, and degenerative cervical spine surgery is highly accurate. Although specific diagnoses codes are mostly insensitive, an ICD9-CM algorithm can be used to study these procedures with reasonable https://www.selleckchem.com/products/mcc950-sodium-salt.html precision.”
“Parental concern is a useful screening approach for early detection of children with developmental delay. We investigated the relationships among parental concerns, functional impairment, and final diagnosis of children (n = 273) with developmental delays. Of these, motor, language, and global delay were most common. Parental concerns, especially in language and motor development, were good predictors of children with language or motor delay, and provided reliable information for detection of children with delays in these domains. Parents were less likely to identify children with cognitive problems, global delay, or associated behavioral problems. Co-occurrence of developmental disorders was also recognized, especially in children with global delay.

Chromatography separation was carried out on a CLC-cyano column,

Chromatography separation was carried out on a CLC-cyano column, using 0.075M acetate buffer with acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) pH = 5.0, as mobile phase, in an isocratic elution. The FK506 total run time was 20 min at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The retention times were of 10.0, 12.8 and 16.1 min, respectively, for homologs C(12), C(14) and C(16) of benzalkonium chloride. About precision, the method presented excellent repeatability and satisfactory precision intermediate, and the coefficients of variation found were 1.73 and 4.51%, respectively. The accuracy values were ranging from

100.86 to 110.99%. The lower limits of quantification and detection were 5 mu g/mL and 2.5 mu g/mL, respectively. Two out of seven analyzed lots contained less BAC than allowed.”
“Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory and immune-mediated disease associated with several comorbidities, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disorder. These comorbidities are components of metabolic syndrome. The pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is supposed to be related to increased levels of adipocytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and adiponectin. Recent study has revealed a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriatics compared with other skin diseases. Biologic agents, including anti-TNF-a antibodies, are recommended as the first-line treatment

for psoriatics with metabolic syndrome. This selective HDAC inhibitors article reviews the association

of psoriasis and metabolic syndrome in terms of adipocytokines and evaluates the role of biologic agents in the treatment of psoriasis.”
“Over the past 2 decades, investigators in the field of cardiac genetics have evolved S3I-201 supplier a complex understanding of the pathophysiological basis of inherited cardiac diseases, which predispose individuals to sudden cardiac death. In this Review, we describe the current status of gene discovery and the associations between phenotype and genotype in the cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. The various indications for genetic testing and its utility in the clinic are assessed in relation to diagnosis, cascade testing, guiding management, and prognosis. Some common problems exist across all phenotypes: the variable penetrance and expressivity of genetic disease, and the difficulty of assessing the functional and clinical effects of novel mutations. These issues will be of particular importance as the next-generation sequencing technologies are used by genetics laboratories to provide results from large panels of genes. The accurate interpretation of these results will be the main challenge for the future.”
“Hemoglobin (Hb) Lepore is a beta(+)-thalassemic hemoglobin variant composed of 2 alpha-globin and 2 delta beta-globin hybrid chains. Three common Hb Lepore variants have been identified based on the primary sequence of the fusion proteins.

Changes in transcript abundance in these growth periods were inve

Changes in transcript abundance in these growth periods were investigated to study the cellular response to different glucose and oxygen supply. Computational results and experimental observations representing the three characteristic metabolic states were compared on the S. cerevisiae metabolic pathways, as well as the visualization platform provided by the metabolic phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) for the gene regulation on cell metabolism and adaptation of cells to environmental changes.

CONCLUSIONS: The integrated expression study described reveals that S. cerevisiae

cells respond to environmental MEK inhibitor changes mainly by down-regulating a number of genes to alter the cell metabolism so that the cells adapt to the variations in their growth conditions. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Purpose of reviewTo provide an overview of the current advances in childhood obesity physiology, intervention, and prevention.Recent findingsStructural and functional brain impairments are present in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training for 20 or 40min per day produced similar affects on metabolic risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve the metabolic risk factors in obese children; however, obese children require greater doses to

treat vitamin D deficiency. A 10-week community-based exergaming weight management

program significantly decreased the BMI in FG-4592 order obese children.SummaryThere is surmounting research on MetS and its associated risk factors in obese children. Gaining buy AS1842856 a comprehensive overview of the factors associated with obesity in children is crucial in developing the most effective intervention strategies. Community-based and family-centered interventions have generated positive results in reducing children’s BMI and improving MetS risk factors. In addition to obesity intervention efforts, ongoing prevention initiatives are imperative to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.”
“Objective: False-positive BRAF analysis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has rarely been reported in the literature but may become more common with the advent of assays that can detect the BRAF V600E mutation in only 2% of otherwise wild-type thyroid cells. We present the case of an indeterminate BRAF-positive FNA that showed no evidence of cancer on final surgical pathology.

Methods: Case report and literature review.

Results: An 87-year-old female with an indeterminate 1.7-cm nodule but BRAF-positive cytology underwent thyroid lobectomy. Final pathology revealed a benign adenomatoid nodule. An area rich in tumor cells from the nodule was identified, labeled, and microdissected for molecular testing, which demonstrated only wild-type BRAF, at the analytical limit of the assay.

Results: VT placements were performed at 5 years of age or younge

Results: VT placements were performed at 5 years of age or younger in 41 CP patients (82 ears, 38%). About 30% of patients treated by VT placement at 5 years of age or younger required myringotomy and/or

VT re-placement at 6 years of age or over. Ninety-five percent of patients who had not been treated by VT insertion at 5 years of age or younger showed a favorable subsequent clinical course. Patients treated by VT insertion at 5 years of age or younger had significantly smaller mastoid air cell areas as measured at 5 years of age and also at 1 year of age. No significant difference in language development was observed between the CP patients that underwent /did not undergo VT placement.

Conclusions: VT CH5424802 concentration placement should be positively undertaken in CP children who have small mastoid air cell areas as measured at 1 year of age, because an unfavorable prognosis of OME is expected in such patients. It is considered that patients treated by VT placement at 5 years of age or younger should be carefully followed up for the development of OME even after 6 years of age. Thus, measurement of the mastoid air cell area at the age of 1 year is useful for determining the therapeutic program. (C) 2012 Elsevier

Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Contents Interferon tau (IFNT), a type I IFN produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, is the signal for maternal pregnancy recognition in ruminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate BIX 01294 cost whether IFNT effected on the proliferation of ovine trophectoderm cells in an autocrine manner. Elongated ovine conceptuses (Days 15, Day 0=day of mating) were collected for isolation of mononuclear ovine

trophectoderm (oTr-1) cells, and conceptuses (Days 15 and 20, n=4 and 3, respectively) were collected for RNA extraction. We demonstrated that the IFNT receptor, IFNAR1, was expressed in trophectoderm of day 15 and 20 conceptuses. Interestingly, the ovine trophectoderm cell line oTr-1 cultured in the presence of recombinant bovine IFNT (rbIFNT) displayed increased expressions of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), such as IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), 2-5-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST2). Meanwhile, the presence of rbIFNT in the culture media could promote the 4EGI-1 Others inhibitor cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the connective tissue growth factor, which has diverse functions in cell proliferation and is involved in conceptus elongation, was upregulated in oTr-1 cell by rbIFNT treatment in vitro. These data indicated that IFNT could act as an autocrine factor to regulate trophectoderm cell proliferation.”
“Dimethyl sulfoxide porous silicon (DMSO-PSi) colloid in which DMSO was used as a surfactant suitable for inhibiting the agglomeration of PSi nanoparticles was prepared for use in cancer photothermotherapy. The photothermal effect of the DMSO-PSi colloid was found to be high enough to destroy cancer cells (T = similar to 52 A degrees C).

The compound was further evaluated for its therapeutic applicabil

The compound was further evaluated for its therapeutic applicability. Antioxidant potential was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay and reducing power analysis. Moreover, the 17DMAG manufacturer glycoside was investigated to elucidate its potential for non-specific and site-specific deoxyribose

degradation. Proficiency in inhibiting lipid peroxidation was adjudged using thiobarbituric (TBA) assay on mice liver homogenate. Tinctoroid was found to exhibit efficacy in protecting DNA from oxidative injury inflicted by H2O2. The compound demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity in liver carcinoma (Hep3B) cells. In addition, it was found to be non-toxic in Swiss Albino mice. The compound isolated from genus Morinda, one of the pioneer hubs of therapeutic natural products, makes tinctoroid a viable option. Furthermore, efficacy of the compound in the aforesaid

assays, asserts its bioactivity and subsequently its importance as a potent therapeutic. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: Volume replacement in septic patients improves hemodynamic stability. This effect can reduce the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline solution versus 0.9% normal saline solution for volume replacement during an inflammatory response in endotoxemic rats.

METHODS: We measured cytokines (serum and gut), nitrite, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) as indicators of oxidative stress in the gut. Rats were divided into four groups: control group (C) that did not receive lipopolysaccharide; lipopolysaccharide injection without treatment (LPS); lipopolysaccharide injection with saline treatment (LPS + S); https://www.selleckchem.com/products/oicr-9429.html and lipopolysaccharide injection with hypertonic saline treatment (LPS + H). Serum and intestine were collected. Measurements

were taken at 1.5, 8, and 24 h after lipopolysaccharide administration.

RESULTS: Of the four groups, the LPS + H group had the highest survival rate. Hypertonic saline solution treatment led to lower levels of IL-6, IL-10, nitric oxide, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances compared to 0.9% normal saline. In addition, hypertonic saline treatment resulted Rabusertib in a lower mortality compared to 0.9% normal saline treatment in endotoxemic rats. Volume replacement reduced levels of inflammatory mediators in the plasma and gut.

CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline treatment reduced mortality and lowered levels of inflammatory mediators in endotoxemic rats. Hypertonic saline also has the advantage of requiring less volume replacement.”
“In pigs, the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2A and 2E1 activity is important in the regulation of skatole accumulation in adipose tissue. This study investigated gender-related differences in CYP1A2, 2A and 2E1 dependent activity, protein and mRNA expression. This study also investigated the gonadal steroid dependent inhibition of CYP activity in relation to gender and dietary composition.

Methods

This was a secondary analysis of EpiLUTS-a pop

Methods

This was a secondary analysis of EpiLUTS-a population-representative, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey conducted to assess the prevalence and HRQL impact of urinary symptoms. UI was evaluated by the LUTS Tool and categorized by subgroups: no UI, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), stress urinary incontinence (SUI),

mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (UUI + SUI), UUI + other UI (OI), SUI + OI, and OI. Descriptive statistics were used. Logistic regressions examined the relationship of BMI to UI controlling for demographics and comorbid conditions.

Results

Response rate was 59%; 10,070 men and 13,178 women were included. Significant differences in BMI were found across UI subgroups. Obesity rates were highest among those with MUI (men and women), SUI + OI (women), UUI and UUI + OI (men). EGFR inhibitor Logistic regressions of each UI subgroup showed that BMI >= 30 (obese) was associated with UI in general and MUI (women) SBC-115076 and UUI + OI (men). Among women, being obese increased the odds of having SUI and SUI + OI. Women with BMI 25-29.9 (overweight)

were more likely to have UI in general and SUI with and without other incontinence (SUI, MUI, and SUI + OI). Being overweight was unrelated to any form of UI in men.

Conclusions

Results were consistent with prior research showing BMI is associated with higher risk of UI. These findings indicate substantial differences in obesity by gender and click here UI subtype, suggesting different mechanisms for UI other than purely mechanical stress on the bladder. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:392-399, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose of review

There is increasing evidence to suggest that antibody-mediated mechanisms

play a role in the pathogenesis of liver allograft rejection. This article will review the pathology of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) focusing on recent studies which have improved our understanding of the clinicopathological features and diagnostic approaches.

Recent findings

Recent studies have investigated the patterns of immunohistochemical staining for C4d as a tissue marker of AMR in posttransplant biopsies, and have correlated these findings with other histopathological changes and with the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). These studies have highlighted the diagnostic applications and limitations of C4d immunostaining. They have also emphasized the importance of using strict criteria for defining ‘pure’ AMR in the liver allograft – that is, graft dysfunction associated with compatible histological findings (typically resembling biliary obstruction), the presence of DSAs and diffusely positive staining for C4d.

Summary

Pure AMR is relatively uncommon in ABO-compatible grafts – it should be diagnosed on the basis of strict criteria and requires treatment with antibody-depleting immunosuppression. C4d immunostaining in isolation has limited diagnostic value.

Radiographs were digitized and compared to the aluminum step-wedg

Radiographs were digitized and compared to the aluminum step-wedge. The radiographic density data were converted into millimeters of aluminum (mm Al), using the Digora 1.51 software. Results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test. The level of significance was set at 5% (P<.05%).

Results. Radiopacity values

ranged from 1.21 mm Al (light-cured MTA) to 6.45 mm Al (MTA Angelus). Comparison between materials showed significant difference (P<.05) between MTA Angelus and all other materials, between Sealepox RP and MTA Bio, and between light-cured MTA and Portland cement clinker. Light-cured MTA was significantly less radiopaque than all other materials. No significant difference (P>.05)

was found between MTA LDN-193189 chemical structure Bio and Portland cement clinker.

Conclusions. All retrograde filling materials evaluated showed greater radiopacity than dentin. All the materials, SB203580 chemical structure except light-cured MTA met the minimum radiopacity standards of 3 mm Al recognized by the ISO 6876: 2001 and ADA n.57. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: e35-e38)”
“Study Design. Content analysis of patient interviews, clinic letters, and radiology reports for patients with chronic low back pain of greater than 12 months duration.

Objective. To explore the language used by patients and healthcare professionals to describe low back pain and any potential effect on patient perceived prognosis.

Summary of Background Data. Diagnostic explanations by healthcare professionals may influence patient coping and uptake of therapy by patients with chronic low back pain. Although the correlation between radiologic changes and chronic low back pain is weak, these investigations are often used by clinicians as an explanation of

the underlying cause for the pain.

Methods. Patients were asked about their understanding of the mechanisms underlying their pain, flares, and future outcome. Notes from these interviews were transcribed, along with correspondence from primary care physicians, orthopedic surgeons and pain physicians, and lumbar spine radiology reports for these patients. Content analysis was performed to identify and group key terms.

Results. Two major categories representing the predominant themes NSC23766 cost emerging from the content analysis were “”Degeneration”" and “”Mechanical.”" Degenerative terms such as “”wear and tear”" and “”disc space loss”" indicated a progressive loss of structural integrity. Examples of phrases used by patients included “”deterioration [...] spine is crumbling”" and “”collapsing [...] discs wearing out.”" The use of degenerative terms by patients was associated with a poor perceived prognosis (P < 0.01). Degenerative and mechanical terms were more commonly used by patients when they were documented in correspondence from secondary care specialists (P = 0.03 and 0.

If these diagnostic results are positive, treatment options such

If these diagnostic results are positive, treatment options such as surgery, external radiotherapy and tumour embolisation should be considered. If diagnostic results are negative, BYL719 cost one course of I-131 treatment may be considered in high-risk patients with serum Tg >10 ng/mL after TSH withdrawal or >5 ng/mL under recombinant human TSH stimulation. No further I-131 therapy is indicated for patients with a negative post-therapy radioiodine scan. (C) 2010

The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Three all-electrical detection techniques-differential resistance (dV/dI), rf/microwave transmission, and spin rectification measurements-were used to measure the magnetic response of individual patterned Permalloy structures. PFTα in vitro The investigated techniques enable the identification of distinctive magnetization states, such as vortex nucleation and excitation, domain wall motion, ferromagnetic resonance, and spin wave excitations both in the quasistatic and dynamic regimes. The techniques differ in signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity to the different types of magnetization responses studied here, suggesting

that the use of multiple techniques can significantly improve the understanding of magnetically complex structures. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3544480]“
“In this work we report the Vadimezan chemical structure properties of nanocomposite based on PET with two different samples of organically modified montmorillonites. In particular, we studied the effect of the filler

concentration on morphology, rheology, and mechanical performance, focusing our attention on the effect of the degradation phenomena of the clay modifiers. The results indicate that at low clay level the morphology achieved is mainly intercalated. On increasing the filler level, coalescence and/or bad defragmentation phenomena induce a coarser morphology, as confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM observations. When a more polar organic modifier is used to modify the clay, the particle adhesion and distribution is slightly better. Conversely, at the processing temperatures adopted, this organic modifier induces a strong degradation of PET, as confirmed by melt rheology and intrinsic viscosity measurements. DSC indicates, in addition, a slight increase of crystallinity likely due to the decreased molecular weight. As regards the mechanical properties, Young’s modulus is not significantly changed unless high amounts of clay (10%) are used while the elongation at break drops even at the lowest clay content. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.