This principle simply states that if protein A is homologous to p

This principle simply states that if protein A is homologous to protein B, and protein B is homologous to protein C, then protein A must be homologous to protein C, regardless of whether significant sequence similarity

can be documented for proteins A and C. Homology by definition means derived from a common ancestral protein. It is thus unnecessary to identify regions of high sequence similarity between two proteins if one or more sequences of adequate sequence similarity can be found that interlinks the aforementioned two sequences. To establish homology between repeat elements in the transmembrane domains of ABC importers, we used the SuperAZD6738 family Principle as defined above to extend the significant internal homology decisions to other evolutionarily Selleck Alvespimycin related proteins (e.g., derived from a common ancestor) [17, 18]. This principle has been used to establish homology for distantly

related members of extensive superfamilies [13, 19–21]. As documented in this communication, we have used statistical means to establish homology for all ABC uptake transporters except for TC family 3.A.1.21 which clearly belongs to the ABC1 family. Additionally, we have established homology for internal repeat elements in representative transmembrane domains [4, 17, 18]. Finally, we have obtained preliminary evidence that two of the six primordial TMSs in ABC2 protein (TMSs 3 and 4) gave rise to the 2 TMS repeat elements in ABC1 porters, suggesting that the evolution of ABC2 porters 4SC-202 mouse preceeded that of ABC1 porters. Many families

of integral membrane transport proteins evolved independently of each other following different evolutionary pathways [19]. These pathways involved intragenic multiplication events where the primordial genes presumably encoded channel-forming peptides, usually with one, two or three α-helical TMSs [19]. They duplicated, triplicated or quadruplicated—sometimes in a single step, sometimes in more than one step [19, 22, 23]. The bacterial maltose transport system proteins, MalF (P02916) and MalG (P68183) are two distinct membrane proteins that together comprise the channel of an ABC superfamily member. High resolution structural information Inositol monophosphatase 1 is available for this system (TC# 3.A.1.1.1). Consequently, it is known that these two proteins differ in their TMS architecture. MalF has a 3 + 5 TMS structure whereas MalG has a 3 + 3 TMS structure. We here propose that these proteins, and almost all integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake systems, are of the ABC2-type as noted above, arising from a 3 + 3 repeat topology. This raises the question of how the MalF protein arose from a MalG-like precursor. The MalF protein contains a long hydrophilic sequence insert between TMS 3 and TMS 4.

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