All cattle raised in the farms in Korea are regularly tested for

All cattle raised in the farms in Korea are regularly tested for brucellosis and a test certificate is required before they could be moved. The brucellosis outbreaks peaked at 2.02% of the tested cattle in 2006 ��-Nicotinamide research buy before decreasing gradually

to 1.07% in 2007 [2]. In humans, one case of B. abortus infection was officially reported in 2002. The number of human cases has continuously increased since then. In 2007, 101 human cases were reported [3]. Brucellosis in cattle is mainly caused by B. abortus, which causes herd production losses owing to reproductive problems. B. abortus has host preference and infect mainly cattle and other Bovidae [4–6]. B. abortus has been isolated from a variety of animals, however, among foxes, coyotes, opossums, boars, and raccoons. The infection of dogs and ranched mink by B. abortus leads them to undergo abortion, and large numbers of Brucella have been cultured from Selleckchem PF01367338 their fetuses and uterine exudates. Vertical transmission has also been reported in coyotes. Some of the B. abortus isolates came from the rats in the farms where the cattle were infected, but they do not represent a significant reservoir of brucellosis [4, 7–9]. Moreover, B. abortus can be transmitted to

humans from infected animals through direct contact with the latter’s aborted fetuses and fetal membranes, or through the

consumption of raw milk and milk products [10, 11]. The Brucella species have a high DNA homology of greater than 90% [12–15]. The routine identification of the Brucella species and biovars has led to their classification through classical biotyping scheme assays using the conventional microbiological tests [16, 17]. A few tools have been introduced to molecular genotyping methods, such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP), random NCT-501 mouse amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, amplified fragment Clomifene length polymorphism (AFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) [13, 18–21]. None of them, however, has proven to be fully satisfactory for epidemiological investigation or for tracing strains back to their origin. The multilocus variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) methods based on the monitoring of variability in the copy numbers of tandem repeat units (TRs) for several loci were introduced to the assessment of the discrimination potential of genotype-based typing and epidemiological trace-back. TR sequences may be an interesting class of markers as multiple alleles can be presented at a single locus, and as their size differences can be easily resolved through agarose electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis equipment.

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