This effect is thought to reflect category-specific adaptation processes. Similarly, presenting two faces concurrently also reduces
the N170, suggesting that stimuli compete for neural representations in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as 170 ms. Here we compared the ERPs obtained for two faces or for a face and a phase-scrambled face in three selleck products different conditions: (1) a first stimulus (Si) followed by a second one (S2), similarly to previous adaptation paradigms; (2) S1 remaining on screen when S2 appeared, as previously used in studies of competition; (3) or S1 and S2 having simultaneous onset and offset as well. We found a significant and stimulus specific reduction of the N170 in both conditions where the onset of S1 preceded the onset of S2. In contrast, simultaneous presentation of the two stimuli had no specific effect on the ERPs at least until 200 ms post-stimulus onset. This suggests either that competition does not lead to early repetition suppression or that the absence of a larger N170 response to two simultaneously presented GSK621 face stimuli compared to a single stimulus reflects competition between overlapping representations. Overall, our results show that the asynchronous presentation
of S1 and S2 is critical to observe stimulus specific reduction of the N170, presumably reflecting adaptation-related processes.
selleckchem (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background. Certain parenting styles are influential in the emergence of later mental health problems, but less is known about the relationship between parenting style and later psychological well-being. Our aim was to examine the association between well-being in midlife and parental behaviour during childhood and adolescence, and the role of personality as a possible mediator of this relationship.
Method. Data from 984 women in the 1946 British birth cohort study were analysed using structural equation modelling. Psychological well-being was assessed at age 52 years using Ryff’s scales of psychological well-being. Parenting practices were recollected at age 43 years using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Extraversion and neuroticism were assessed at age 26 years using the Maudsley Personality Inventory.
Results. In this sample, three parenting style factors were identified : care; non-engagement; control. Higher levels of parental care were associated with higher psychological well-being, while higher parental non-engagement or control were associated with lower levels of psychological well-being. The effects of care and non-engagement were largely mediated by the offspring’s personality, whereas control had direct effects on psychological well-being.