Two groups of patients were enrolled: group I (38 patients with C

Two groups of patients were enrolled: group I (38 patients with CPPD) and group II (22 patients with knee OA). US/PDS examination of the heels was performed to both groups. In the CPPD group, US/PDS examination of the Achilles tendon revealed: calcification in 57.9%, enthesophytosis in 57.9%, enthesopathy

in 23.7%, vascular sign in 21%, bursitis in 13.2%, and cortical bone irregularity in 10.5%. US/PDS examination of plantar fascia in the CPPD group revealed: calcification in 15.8%, cortical bone irregularity in 78.9%, enthesophytosis in 60.5%, and planter fasciitis in 42.1%. In patients with CPPD, age was significantly correlated with enthesophytosis click here and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). Heel tenderness and posterior talalgia were significantly correlated with Achilles tendon enthesopathy, vascular sign, and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p=0.0001 for each). Inferior talalgia was significantly correlated with plantar

fasciitis (p=0.0001). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of calcifications in Achilles tendon and plantar fascia was 57.9% and 15.8%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both. To conclude, ultrasonographic Achilles tendon and plantar fascia calcifications are frequent findings in patients with CPPD. These calcifications have a high specificity JQEZ5 price S3I-201 purchase and can be used as a useful indirect sign of CPPD.”
“Stable carbon isotope values (delta C-13) obtained from terrestrial plant leaves are increasingly being used to infer palaeoenvironmental

trends. However, there are considerable variations in delta C-13 values even among leaves of a single plant due to different microhabitats, which can bias palaeoenvironmental interpretations. One important factor causing microhabitat variations is leaf position on a tree (i.e. sun and shade leaves). It is extensively known that delta C-13 varies markedly between sun and shade leaves in modern plants, with sun leaves containing more enriched C-13. Yet, the delta C-13 variations of fossil leaves in this respect are not investigated systematically. Here, we examine bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopic variabilities of fossil Liquidambar leaves between sun and shade leaves. For comparison, bulk isotopic data are analyzed in modern Liquidambar. Our results show that carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, delta C-13 and nitrogen isotope composition (delta N-15) are notably different between sun and shade morphotypes in modern Liquidambar. When these criteria are applied to fossil Liquidambar, we found that the difference in stable carbon isotope compositions between fossil sun and shade morphotypes is narrow (only 0.33 parts per thousand) and statistically not significant (P > 0.2).

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