Phosphorylation of other Rab11 effectors also modulates polarized

Phosphorylation of other Rab11 effectors also modulates polarized trafficking in other experimental systems, which hints that similar mechanisms may be widely used to control the directionality of membrane traffic.”
“We introduce Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining the wetting properties of model systems

at geometrically rough interfaces. The techniques described here enable one to calculate the macroscopic contact angle of a droplet that organizes in one of the three wetting states commonly observed for fluids at geometrically rough surfaces: the Cassie, Wenzel, and impregnation states. We adopt an interface potential approach in which the wetting properties of a system are related to the surface density dependence of the surface excess free energy of a thin liquid film in contact with the substrate. We first describe challenges and inefficiencies encountered when implementing a direct version of this approach to compute the properties of fluids at rough surfaces. Next, we detail a series of convenient thermodynamic paths that enable one to obtain free energy information at relevant surface densities over a wide range of temperatures and substrate strengths in an efficient manner. We then show how this information is assembled to construct complete wetting diagrams at a temperature

of interest. The strategy pursued Pevonedistat molecular weight within this work is general and is expected to be applicable to a wide range of molecular systems. To demonstrate the utility of the approach, we present results for a Lennard-Jones fluid in contact with a substrate containing rectangular-shaped grooves

characterized by feature sizes of order ten fluid diameters. For this particular fluid-substrate combination, we find that the macroscopic theories of Cassie and Wenzel provide a reasonable description of simulation data. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3655817]“
“Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during GSK1210151A adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O-2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O-2 are critical for understanding the link between physiological O-2 transport and ROS signaling. New non-invasive technologies allow real-time measurement of O-2 at the single cell and even organelle levels. This review briefly summarizes currently available (i.e.

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