“Leaf litter decomposes on the surface of soil in natural systems and element transfers between litter and soil are commonly found. However, how litter and soil organic matter (SOM) interact to influence decomposition rate and nitrogen (N) release remains unclear.\n\nLeaf litter and mineral soil of top 0-5 cm from six forests were incubated separately, or together with litter on soil surface at 25 A degrees C for 346 days. Litter N remaining and soil respiration rate were repeatedly measured during incubation. www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-203580.html Litter carbon (C) and mass losses and mineral N concentrations
in litter and soil were measured at the end of incubation.\n\nNet N transfer from soil to litter was found in all litters when incubated with soil. Litter incubated with soil lost more C than litter incubated alone after 346 days. For litters with initial C: N ratios lower than
52, net N-min after 346 days was 100 % higher when incubated with soil than when incubated alone. Litter net N-min rate was negatively related to initial C: N ratio when incubated with soil but not when incubated alone. Soil respiration rate and net N-min rate did not differ between soil incubated with litter and soil incubated alone.\n\nWe PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 conclude that soils may enhance litter decomposition rate by net N transfer from soil to litter. Our results together with studies on litter mixture decomposition suggest that net N transfer between decomposing organic matter with different N status may be common
and may significantly influence decomposition and N release. The low net N-min rate during litter decomposition along with the small size of litter N pool compared to soil N pool suggest that SOM rather than decomposing litter is the major contributor to plant mineral N supply.”
“Although many recent studies have suggested that CDzr helper T cell (Th-cell) functions are well conserved among teleost fishes and mammals, there is little evidence that CDT’ Th-cells in fish are actually involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity during a secondary immune response. In the present study, adoptive transfer using clonal ginbuna crucian carp and crucian carp hematopoietic necrosis virus (CHNV) was used to investigate the functions of CDT’ cells during humoral and cell-mediated immunity. With buy Rabusertib regard to humoral immunity, transplanting CHNV-sensitized donor cells, containing OA(+) cells, into naive fish induced more rapid and stronger antibody production than by transplanting non-sensitized donor cells or sensitized donor cells lacking CIA(+) cells. During cell-mediated immunity, no significant differences were found in recipients that received sensitized cells regardless of whether the donor cells contained CD4+ cells, although recipients that received both sensitized donor cells (with and without CD4+ cells) exhibited more efficient cell-mediated cytotoxicity than those that received nonsensitized donor cells.