In Western blot experiments PACAP27 and PACAP38 antibodies specifically labeled protein band at 4.5 kDa both in rat and snail brain homogenates, and 4EGI-1 additionally an similar to 14 kDa band in snail. The 4.5 kDa protein corresponds to PACAP38 and the 14 kDa protein corresponds to the preproPACAP or to a PACAP-like peptide having larger molecular weight than mammalian PACAP38. In matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF) measurements fragments of PACAP38 were identified in brain samples
suggesting the presence of a large molecular weight peptide in the snail. Applying antibodies developed against the PACAP receptor PAC1-R, immunopositive stained neurons and a dense network of fibers were identified in each of the ganglia. In electrophysiological experiments, extracellular application of PACAP27 and PACAP38 transiently depolarized or increased postsynaptic activity of neurons expressing PAC1-R. In several neurons PACAP
elicited a long lasting hyperpolarization which was eliminated after 1.5 In continuous washing. Taken together, these results indicate that PACAP may have significant role in a wide range of basic physiological functions in snail. (C) 2008 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which plays an essential role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism and transportation, appears to be a risk factor for ischemic vascular diseases. Several this website studies PIK-5 have recently reported the presence of relationship between HindIII, Pvull, Ser447Ter (C -> G) polymorphisms of LPL and ischemic vascular diseases.
Purpose: We first studied the relationship between LPL polymorphisms and the risk of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (CI) by detecting the frequencies of LPL HindIII, Pvull and Ser447Ter genotypes and combined genotypes in the Chinese.
Methods: We recruited 185
Cl patients, confirmed by cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging/angiography, or both, and 186 control subjects. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms technique was used to detect HindIII, Pvull and Ser447Ter polymorphisms of the LPL gene.
Results: The frequencies of the H+H+ genotype and H+ allele did not differ between Cl and control groups. The frequencies of the P+P+ genotype and P+ allele gene were significantly higher in the Cl group (P=0.040, P=0.015). The frequencies of CG+GG genotype and G allele were lower in the Cl group (P<0.001, P<0.001). In the Cl group, the individuals with P+P+ genotype had a significantly higher level of plasma triglyceride (TG) and a lower level of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). CG+GG genotypes were correlated with significantly higher levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), HDL-c and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) in the Cl group.