In this model, unilateral intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) injec

In this model, unilateral intrahippocampal kainic acid (KA) injection induced degeneration of CA1, CA3c and hilar neurons, followed by spontaneous recurrent focal seizures. In the contralateral, morphologically preserved isocitrate dehydrogenase inhibitor hippocampus, a long-lasting increase of PSA-NCAM immunoreactivity was observed. Inactivation of PSA-NCAM by endoneuraminidase (EndoN) administration into the contralateral ventricle of KA-treated mice caused severe degeneration of CA3a,b neurons and dentate gyrus granule cells in the epileptic focus, and led to early onset of focal seizures. This striking trans-hemispheric alteration suggested that PSA-NCAM mediates

GDNF signaling, leading to transport of neuroprotective signals into the lesioned hippocampus. This hypothesis was confirmed by injecting GDNF antibodies into the contralateral hippocampus of KA-treated mice, thereby reproducing the enhanced neurodegeneration seen after PSA-NCAM inactivation. Furthermore, contralateral EndoN and anti-GDNF treatment decreased Ku-0059436 manufacturer GDNF family receptor α1 immunoreactivity and FAK phosphorylation in the epileptic focus. Thus, Ret-independent GDNF signaling across the commissural projection might protect CA3a,b neurons and delay seizure onset. These findings implicate GDNF in the control of epileptogenesis and offer a

possible mechanism explaining lesion asymmetry in mesial TLE. “
“We often face the challenge of simultaneously attending to multiple non-contiguous regions of space. There is ongoing debate as to how spatial attention is divided under these situations. Whereas, for several years, the predominant view was that humans could divide the attentional spotlight,

several recent studies argue in favor of a unitary spotlight that rhythmically samples relevant locations. Here, this issue was addressed by the use of high-density electrophysiology in concert with the multifocal m-sequence technique to examine visual evoked Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 responses to multiple simultaneous streams of stimulation. Concurrently, we assayed the topographic distribution of alpha-band oscillatory mechanisms, a measure of attentional suppression. Participants performed a difficult detection task that required simultaneous attention to two stimuli in contiguous (undivided) or non-contiguous parts of space. In the undivided condition, the classic pattern of attentional modulation was observed, with increased amplitude of the early visual evoked response and increased alpha amplitude ipsilateral to the attended hemifield. For the divided condition, early visual responses to attended stimuli were also enhanced, and the observed multifocal topographic distribution of alpha suppression was in line with the divided attention hypothesis.

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