IEF was stopped at a maximum of 70,000 V · h−1 Second-dimension

IEF was stopped at a maximum of 70,000 V · h−1. Second-dimension SDS-PAGE of vertical slab After IEF, the strips were equilibrated in a solution containing 50 mmol · L−1 Tris-HCL, 6 mol · L−1 urea, 30% glycerol, 2% SDS, and 1% DTT for 15 min, and then learn more an additional 15 min in the same solution with 2.5% iodoacetamide substituted for 1% DTT. After equilibration, vertical second-dimension separation was performed on 180 mm × 180 mm × 1 mm 13% homogeneous SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The IPG strips and low molecular weight protein markers were placed on gels and sealed using 0.5% agarose solution. Electrophoresis buffer containing 25 mmol · L−1

Tris base, 192 mmol · L−1 glycine, and 0.1% SDS was circulated at 16°C. The electrophoresis parameter of a strip was 20 mA × 40 min + 30 mA × 5 h. Electrophoresis was stopped when the bromophenol blue front was 1 mm from bottom of the gel. Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 staining was adopted for

the gels. Image analysis Image analysis was performed using ImageMaster software (Amersham Biosciences Little Chalfont, UK) according to the manufacturer’s protocols. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD, and the difference in the abundance of protein spot was analyzed by a two-tailed t test. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Stained gels were scanned using an image scanner, and images were processed using ImageMaster2D Elite (version 3.01) software. After spot detection and boundary average background subtraction, the gels were matched. For Smoothened Agonist solubility dmso comparison, volumes of the protein spots were standardized. Student’s t test was used to detect significant statistical differences in spot volume between the control and exposed groups (p < 0.05). In-gel digestion and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel separated proteins were visualized by Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 staining. Selected differentially expressed

Lonafarnib protein spots were excised from preparative gels, and in-gel digestion was performed. The gel spots were washed three times with double distilled water and destained with a fresh solution containing 100 mM NH4HCO3 in 50% acetonitrile at 37°C. After being vacuum-centrifuged, the gel pieces were incubated in 10 μL of digestion solution consisting of 40 mM NH4HCO3 in 9% acetonitrile solution, and 20 μg/mL proteomic grade trypsin (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) for 10 to 12 h at 37°C. In peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) map database searching, Mascot Distiller software was used to determine the monoisotopic peak list from the raw mass spectrometry files. Peptide matching and protein searches against the NCBI nonredundant (nr) databases were performed using the Mascot search engine (http://​www.​matrixscience.​com) with a mass tolerance of ±0.3 Da.

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