From the perspective of stress modeling, three important conseque

From the perspective of stress modeling, three important consequences of the temporal dimension should be taken into consideration: the time point of assessment of indicators of the stress, the duration of the stressful challenge, and the phenomenon of habituation. Systems involved in the organism’s response to stress have different activation latencies; accordingly, measurable end point changes occur at different intervals upon the challenge. Further, these systems act within physiological limits (described by, eg, synthetic and secretory

capacity, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical feedback regulation within the system, consistency with key vital functions, etc) and cannot indefinitely maintain a maximal

level of performance. Thus, changes in measurable end points vary depending Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on the duration of the stimulus, its perceived homeostatic threat, and the efficacy of the individually selected coping strategy (see below), but also due to output Selleck NLG919 readjustment or exhaustion of the involved system. Finally, repeated exposure to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical homotypic stressors has been shown to produce gradual decline in the magnitude of several, but not all, commonly used indices of physiological response to stress. The omnipresence of this phenomenon is debatable, though there may be controversy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical based on species and paradigm differences. Habituation to repeated homotypic stress has a plausible teleological explanation: it is supposed to ensure the

ability of a system involved in stress response to discriminate and adequately meet novel incoming challenges. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Here, another important feature of the stress response, referred to as cross sensitization, should be mentioned. It has been recognized that, despite habituation to repeated homotypic challenge, stress responsive systems retain and, more importantly, even augment, their ability to react to challenges medroxyprogesterone of a different modality. Several substrates of this phenomenon have been identified,5 and its importance in the pathogenesis of stress related disorders is generally recognized.1,2,4 Experimental modeling of stress requires clear definition of the research objectives, and consideration of numerous factors that may modify individual aspects of the stress response. Investigation of the magnitude and temporal course of a particular stress responsive parameter to a single challenge of limited duration has substantial diagnostic value in several medical disciplines.

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