For all flavonoids with losses of 162 u, galloyl-glucose ester (p

For all flavonoids with losses of 162 u, galloyl-glucose ester (peak 1), myricetin

glucoside (peak 8) and diglucosides of dihydromyricetin (peak 3), dihydroquercetin (peak 5), methyl-dihydromyricetin (peak 6), and dimethyl-dihydromyricetin (peak 7), the hexose was assigned as glucose due to the fact that this monosaccharide selleck was the only hexose found in the anthocyanins identified in jambolão in the present and previous studies (Brito et al., 2007, Li et al., 2009a, Li et al., 2009b and Veigas et al., 2007). This is the first time that the identification of non-anthocyanic flavonoids is reported in jambolão fruits. However, gallic acid, myricetin, myricetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and myricetin 3-O-(4″-O-acetyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, all found in the fruit, were previously identified through MS and NMR in jambolão leaves (Mahmoud et al., 2001). The carotenoids found in jambolão were identified based on the combined information obtained from the elution order on C30 column, and characteristics of UV–Vis and mass spectra (Table 4) compared to standards and published data (Britton et al., 2004, De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007a and De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007b). The MS/MS fragments, characteristic of the polyenic chain and functional groups, allowed the confirmation of the assigned protonated molecule. The identification of all-trans-lutein (peak 4), all-trans-zeaxanthin

(peak 5), all-trans-β-cryptoxanthin (peak Hydroxychloroquine order 7), all-trans-α-carotene (peak 11), Trichostatin A clinical trial and all-trans-β-carotene (peak 12) was confirmed by co-chromatography with standards. A detailed description of carotenoid identification in fruits using the information above was already reported by De Rosso and Mercadante, 2007a and De Rosso and

Mercadante, 2007b. The profile of carotenoids from jambolão is marked by the presence of all-trans-lutein, 43.7% of the total carotenoids, and all-trans-β-carotene (25.4%), along with their cis isomers ( Table 4, Fig. S5 and S6 from Supplementary data). As far as we are concerned, there are no other studies reporting the composition of carotenoids from jambolão. The profile of jambolão carotenoids is similar to that of camu–camu (M. dubia), other fruit also belonging to the Myrtaceae family, where the major carotenoids were all-trans-lutein (45.2–55.0%) and β-carotene (13.0–20.5%) ( Zanatta & Mercadante, 2007). Considering that the jambolão functional extract has high contents of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, and negligible carotenoids (Table 1), the following discussion about antioxidant activity was based on the anthocyanins behaviour. The same dilution of FE used for the ABTS + test in buffer was used to measure the UV–Vis spectra (data not shown) and the CIELAB colour parameters in all pH conditions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0). These results are shown in Table 5.

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