ERK1/2 is an important subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kin

ERK1/2 is an important subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases that control a broad range of cellular activities and physiological processes. ERK1/2 can be activated transiently or persistently by MEK1/2 and upstream MAP3Ks in conjunction with regulation and involvement of AZD5153 molecular weight scaffolding proteins and phosphatases [30]. There is abundant evidence that survival factors can use the ERK1/2 pathway to increase the expression of several pro-survival BCL-2 proteins, notably BCL-2, BCL-xL

and MCL-1, by promoting de novo gene expression in a variety of cell types [31]. Clearly the ERK1/2 pathway can regulate several members of the BCL-2 protein family to achieve cell survival. ERK1/2 signalling can provide protection against chemotherapeutic Rabusertib cost cytotoxic drugs. It has shown previously sCLU plays an important role in astrogliosis by stimulating the proliferation of astrocytes through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway [32]. Shim and Chou et al. also found significant relation between sCLU and ERK1/2 expression [33, 34]. We therefore suggested that sCLU silencing sensitized

pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine chemotherapy may via ERK1/2 signaling pathway. sCLU is not a traditional druggable target and can only be targeted at mRNA levels. An antisense inhibitor selleck chemical targeting the translation Adenosine triphosphate initiation site of human exon II CLU (OGX-011) was developed at the University of British Columbia and out-licensed to OncoGeneX Pharmaceuticals Inc. OGX-011, or custirsen, is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide with a long tissue half-life of ~ 7 days,

which potently suppresses sCLU levels in vitro and in vivo. OGX-011 improved the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone withdrawal by inhibiting expression of sCLU and enhancing apoptotic rates in preclinical xenograft models of prostate, lung, renal cell, breast, and other cancers [35–39]. In this study, we study the effect of sCLU silencing by OGX-011 on sensitizion of pancreatic cancer cells to gemcitabine chemotherapy, and eluated the mechanisms. Materials and methods Cell culture The human pancreatic cancer MIAPaCa-2 cells resistant to gemcitabine and BxPC-3 cells sensitive to gemcitabine [38] were purchased from American Type Culture Collection. They were routinely cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum in a 37°C incubator in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. Reagents and antibodies OGX-011 was purchased from OncoGenex Technologies. The antisense oligonucleotides were second-generation 21-mer antisense oligonucleotides with a 2′-O-(2-methoxy)ethyl modification. The antisense oligonucleotide clusterin sequence corresponding to the human clusterin initiation site was 5′-CAGCAGCAGAGTCTTCATCAT-3′ and designated OGX-011 (OncoGenex Technologies).

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