5 MHz and variable Doppler frequencies of 4 0–6 0 MHz, was utiliz

5 MHz and variable Doppler frequencies of 4.0–6.0 MHz, was utilized to measure two-dimensional (2D) brachial arterial diameter and mean blood velocity at rest and following a one arm elbow flexor exercise bout. The depth range of the ultrasound beam was greater than the anatomic location of the brachial artery. Blood flow (Q = vmean · A · 6 × 104, where vmean is mean blood velocity; l/min) was calculated from the amplitude (A) (signal intensity)-weighted, time- and spatial- averaged vmean (m/s), corrected

for its angle of insonation, and multiplied by A (m2) of the brachial artery. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test–retest of blood flow and brachial arterial diameter ranged from 0.91 to 0.93. The subjects were fully informed of any risks and discomforts associated with the experiments before giving their informed written consent to participate. All subjects worked with a registered dietician and were placed on a diet Wortmannin cell line consisting of 25% fat, 25% protein, and 50% carbohydrates. eFT-508 Inclusion/exclusion criteria indicated that subjects had to have a minimum of 3 years of resistance training experience and could not be taking any nutritional supplements throughout the study. All subjects

were told to maintain their normal training volume throughout the study. Statistics For the rat study, a two-way (treatment x time) mixed factorial ANOVA with LSD post hoc analysis was performed to determine

if blood flow differed between treatments at each 10-min post-gavage interval. If a significant group, time, or group x time interaction existed the following statistical analyses were performed to further decompose the data: 1) individual independent samples t-tests were performed between treatments at each time point and significance was set at p < 0.01 in order to correct for an inflated type I error rate; 2) dependent t-tests were performed within treatments whereby each time point was compared to the baseline (-60 to -50 min) femoral artery blood flow values. For the rat study, mean femoral artery blood flow areas under the pre-exercise, exercise, post-exercise, and total blood flow curves (AUC) were also computed using SigmaPlot BCKDHB 12.0 which uses the trapezoidal rule algorithm for AUC calculations. Respective AUC values were compared between treatments using one-way ANOVAs with LSD post-hoc analyses where appropriate. All data were expressed as means ± standard error values and significance was set at p < 0.05. For the human data we used a repeated measures analysis of variance using Statistica (StatSoft®, Tulsa, OK, USA) to GSK2245840 molecular weight determine week, time, and week X time effects with an alpha level of 0.05. A tukey post-hoc for pairwise comparisons was run in the event of a significant F-test. Results Animal data There were significant group (p < 0.001) and time (p < 0.001) effects, though no interaction effect (p > 0.05).

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