volume measurement by 2DE is highly experience-dependent, uses only partial information contained in few predefined cross-sections to assess global myocardial function, and relies on geometrical assumptions that may not be necessarily valid in all patients. Two-dimensional echocardiography has also shown a limited test-retest reproducibility for LV volumes and ejection fraction quantification.3) Geometric assumptions render the measurements of LV volume and ejection fraction particularly inaccurate in those patients in whom these parameters are most needed (i.e. patients with previous myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathies, whose LVs are Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical asymmetric or distorted). Three-dimensional LV data set analysis can now be performed using computerized automated or semi-automated endocardial surface detection softwares, which do not rely on geometric assumptions and require only minimal human intervention, therefore improving measurement reproducibility (Fig. 7). Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical After identification of few anatomical landmarks (i.e. apex and mitral annulus reference points), the 3D LV cast can be automatically segmented into the standard 16 or 17 segments. The volume of the entire LV cavity, as well as the separate subvolumes corresponding to each of 16 or 17 segments can be measured frame-by-frame and plotted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical against time (Fig.
8). Fig. 7 Left ventricular volume and ejection fraction measurement using three-dimensional full-volume data set. The three longitudinal views (4-, 2-chamber, and long-axis vie and the adjustable short axis view are
used to visualize the accuracy of the semiautomated … Fig. 8 The endocardial surface can be subdivided in 16 or 17 color-coded areas corresponding to the left ventricular Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical segmentation. Each segment can be assimilated to a pyramid with the base on the endocardium and the apex at the gravity center of the ventricle. … Three-dimensional echocardiography has been extensively validated against CMR (Table 1)4-19) and was demonstrated to be more time-saving, reproducible and accurate than conventional 2DE for LV volumes and ejection fraction measurement. The possibility of re-aligning planes and optimally adjusting the LV chamber size to its maximum longitudinal axis length is an important advantage offered by 3DE over conventional 2DE. Foreshortening ALOX15 of LV longitudinal axis is a major cause of volume underestimation by 2DE, which accounts for the larger bias observed in comparison with 3DE. However, despite eliminating LV apical foreshortening and geometric assumptions, 3DE still yields a systematic underestimation of LV volumes as shown in a meta-analysis of 95 studies having CMR as reference.19) A significant underestimation has been reported for LV Selleckchem SB505124 end-systolic (-4.7 mL) and end-diastolic (-9.9 mL) volumes, whereas ejection fraction measurement revealed an excellent accuracy (-0.