, Goldberg, J., 2006, Origin of the slow afterhyperpolarization and slow rhythmic bursting in striatal cholinergic interneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 95(1), 196-204: Wilson, C., 2005. The mechanism of intrinsic amplification of hyperpolarizations and spontaneous bursting in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Neuron 45(4), 575-585]. Recent experimental evidence has shown that dopaminergic modulations on G(h), G(kir) and calcium conductances influence the AchN’s excitability [Deng, P., Zhang, Y., Xu, Z., 2007. Involvement of I(h) in dopamine modulation of tonic firing in striatal cholinergic interneurons.
J. Neurosci. 27(12), 3148-3156; Aosaki, T., Kiuchi, K., Kawaguchi, Y., 1998. Dopamine D(1)-like receptor activation excites rat striatal large aspiny neurons in vitro. J. Neurosci. 18(14), 5180-5190]. We employed computational models of the AchN to analyze the conductance
based dopaminergic changes. LY294002 supplier We analyzed the robustness of these subthreshold oscillations and how they are affected by dopaminergic modulation. Our results predict see more that these conductances allow the dopamine to switch the AchN between stable oscillatory and fixed-point behaviors. The present approach and results show that dopamine receptors (D(1) and D(2)) mediate opposing effects on this switch and therefore on the suprathreshold excitability as well. The switching effect of the dopaminergic signal is the major qualitative feature that can serve as a building block for higher network-level descriptions. To our knowledge this is the first paper that synthesizes the growing body of experimental literature about the dopaminergic modulation of the AchNs into a modelling framework. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“To examine the development of basic finger-hand motor capacity in a one-year follow-up experiment performed on young children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The maximal finger grip strength (FGMAX), the frequencies of the Lormetazepam fastest voluntary isometric finger force changes (FGCHANGE) while
holding an object, in addition to the finger (FTAP) and hand tapping frequencies (HTAP) were examined on two separate occasions in 30 children between the ages of three to six years with bilateral spastic CP (BCSP). The examinations were per-formed 12 months apart in order to test for improvements in the aforementioned functions. After a one-year period of time, the FGMAX, FGCHANGE and FTAP values increased by 10-15% in both hands (changes in FTAP values were not statistically significant), while the HTAP values remained unchanged. In regard to the normative samples obtained from children of this age period, the gap in the motor capacity of the fingers did not increase. We observed an improvement in the basic finger functions over a one-year period of time in preschool aged children diagnosed with spastic CP.