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“Fungal peritonitis is a serious compl

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“Fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis but previous reports on this have been limited to small, single-center studies. Using all Australian peritoneal dialysis patients, we measured predictors, treatments, and outcomes of this condition TPCA-1 in vivo by logistic regression and multilevel, multivariate Poisson regression. This encompassed 66 centers over a 4-year period that included 162 episodes of

fungal peritonitis (4.5% of all peritonitis episodes) that occurred in 158 individuals. Candida albicans (25%) and other Candida species (44%) were the most common fungi isolated. Fungal peritonitis was independently predicted by indigenous race and prior treatment of bacterial peritonitis. Peritonitis episodes occurring after 7 and 60 days of treatment for previous bacterial peritonitis decreases in the probability of fungal

peritonitis 23 and 6%, respectively. Compared with other organisms, fungal peritonitis was associated with significantly higher rates of hospitalization, catheter removal, transfer to permanent hemodialysis, and death. The risks of repeat fungal peritonitis and death were lowest with catheter removal combined with antifungal therapy when compared to either intervention alone. Our study shows that fungal peritonitis is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis and should Selleckchem Torin 1 be strongly suspected in the context of recent antibiotic treatment for bacterial peritonitis.”
“Astrocytes play a crucial role in several steps of brain development, such as the proliferation of neural precursors. neuronal migration and differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptogenesis. Astrocyte generation and maturation is dramatically modulated by thyroid hormones (THs). Here, we propose a modified model for studying

THs action on astroglial cells, in vitro. We investigated the effect of depletion of THs from fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the expression of the astrocyte maturation markers, GFAP (glial fibrillary tuclazepam acidic protein) and S100 beta, and the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins laminin and fibronectin in cultured astrocytes. To accomplish this, murine cortical astrocytes were cultured in medium supplemented with THs-depleted serum, in contrast to the traditional techniques that use normal FBS which contains considerable amounts of THs. Immunostaining revealed that depletion of THs from FBS did not affect astrocyte proliferation, as observed by the number of astrocytes labeled for the proliferation antigen, Ki67. Surprisingly, western blot and RT-PCR assays revealed decreased levels of GFAP and S100 beta in astrocytes cultured with depleted serum. These events were reversed by addition of THs to the medium. Immunostaining and western blot assays did not reveal any difference in the organization and synthesis of the ECM protein, laminin; whereas the levels of fibronectin were decreased by 50% in THs-depleted serum.

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