3c) The β-glucosidase

3c). The β-glucosidase buy Fostamatinib activity was then measured under standard conditions in the presence of various metal ions (Zn2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Ca2+, and Mn2+). The activity appeared to be strongly inhibited in the presence of 5 mM Zn2+ or Co2+, which caused, respectively, a 64% or 70% activity drop. No ion tested had any positive effect

on the activity of the BglB protein. Kinetic experiments were performed by mixing the enzyme with different concentrations (0.25–10 mM) of pNPG. The Vmax and Km were determined by linear least squares fitting of a Lineweaver–Burke plot of the Michaelis–Menten equation. The BglB protein showed a Vmax of 5.8 μmol L−1 min and a Km of 1.34 mM. The substrate AZD6244 mw specificity of the BglB protein was tested on different substrates diluted in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 6.0 and incubated at 40 °C for 30 min (Table 3). The enzyme was found to hydrolyze both p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside, showing a strong preference for the xylopyranoside substrate, its specific activity being almost five times as high with this substrate than with pNPG. The enzyme failed to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside, o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside, or p-nitrophenyl-β-d-cellobioside. β-Glucosidases are a major group among glycoside

hydrolases, belonging to EC (Henrissat & Davies, 1997). They constitute a heterogeneous group of enzymes with various functions, and are found in many organisms (Esen, 1993): bacteria, fungi, plants, nonvertebrates, and vertebrates. Although they typically act upon β1–4 bonds linking two glucose or substituted glucose molecules, they can also remove other monosaccharides and are classified according to their substrate specificities. Some can thus perform the hydrolysis of cellobiose or cello-oligosaccharides Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) to glucose, participating in the final step of cellulose depolymerization and thus ensuring its complete digestion. In insects, three substrate-specificity-based classes are distinguished. β-Glucosidase activity is

notably present in the digestive systems of many insects (Terra et al., 1996). In the guts of lower termites, it is produced largely by the salivary glands and the gut flora (Inoue et al., 1997). Focusing on the termite Neotermes koshunensis, Tokuda et al. (2002) detected 75% of the β-glucosidase activity in the salivary glands and 15% in the hindgut containing numerous flagellates. In particular, they found a β-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 1 in the salivary glands (Tokuda et al., 2002). In termite guts, other microorganisms such as bacteria of genus Spirochaeta also show β-glucosidase activity (Dröge et al., 2006). Interestingly, the characterized β-glucosidase also displays β-xylosidase activity.

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