All had fasting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≤ 130mg/dL. Seventy-eight per cent of patients were men and 65% were African-American. Median (interquartile range) age and CD4 count were 47 (43, 52) years and 648 (511, 857) cells/μL, respectively. All had HIV-1 RNA < 400 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Mean CCA-IMT BIBW2992 manufacturer was correlated with log-transformed CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ percentage (r = 0.326; P = 0.043), and concentrations of interleukin-6 (r = 0.283; P = 0.028), soluble vascular cell
adhesion molecule (sVCAM; r = 0.434; P = 0.004), tumour necrosis factor-α receptor-I (TNFR-I; r = 0.591; P < 0.0001) and fibrinogen (r = 0.257; P = 0.047). After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the association with TNFR-I (P = 0.007) and fibrinogen (P = 0.033) remained significant. Subjects with plaque (n = 22; 37%) were older [mean (standard deviation) 51 (7.7) vs. 43 (9.4) years, respectively; P = 0.002], and had
a higher CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ percentage [median (interquartile range) 31% (24, 41%) vs. 23% (20, 29%), respectively; P = 0.046] and a higher sVCAM concentration [mean (standard deviation) 737 (159) vs. 592 (160) ng/mL, respectively; P = 0.008] compared with those without plaque. Pro-inflammatory monocyte http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2157299.html subsets and serum markers of monocyte activation (soluble CD163 and soluble CD14) were not associated with CCA-IMT or plaque. Participants in SATURN-HIV have a high level of inflammation and immune activation that is associated with subclinical vascular disease despite low serum LDL cholesterol. “
“The incidence of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection is on the rise in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Data on natural history of acute
hepatitis C and possible factors associated with spontaneous clearance are limited. The Casein kinase 1 aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of HCV reinfections in HIV-positive MSM. A retrospective analysis was carried out on patients with more than one sexually acquired HCV infection who were diagnosed at four major German HIV and hepatitis care centres. Reinfection was defined by genotype or phylogenetic clade switch, detectable HCV RNA after a sustained virological response (SVR) or after spontaneous clearance (SC). In total, 48 HIV-positive MSM were identified with HCV reinfection, among them 11 with a third episode and one patient with four episodes. At the first episode, 43 and five patients had an SVR and SC, respectively. The second episode was accompanied by a genotype switch in 29 patients (60%). Whereas 30 and nine patients showed an SVR and SC, respectively, eight patients developed chronic hepatitis. Neither HCV genotype switch nor interleukin-28B genotype was associated with SC. However, SC rates at the second episode were higher for patients with SC at the first episode compared with patients without SC (60 vs. 14%, respectively; P = 0.03).